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Sexual plant reproduction definition

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Reproduction means producing offspring for the survival of the species. Plant reproduction is the production of new individuals or offspring in plantswhich can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction produces offspring by the fusion of gametesresulting in offspring genetically different from the parent or parents.

Sexual reproduction involves two fundamental...

Asexual reproduction produces new individuals without the fusion of gametes, genetically identical to the parent plants Sexual plant reproduction definition each other, except when mutations occur.

In seed plantsthe offspring can be packaged in a protective Sexual plant reproduction definitionwhich "Sexual plant reproduction definition" used as an agent of dispersal. Reproduction in which male and female gametes do not fuse, as they do in sexual reproduction.

Asexual reproduction may occur through buddingfragmentationfissionspore formation and vegetative propagation. Plants have two main types of asexual reproduction in which new plants are produced that are genetically identical clones of the parent individual. Vegetative reproduction invoves a vegetative piece of the original plant budding, tilleringetc. Apomixis occurs in many plant species and also in some non-plant organisms. For apomixis and similar processes in non-plant organisms, see parthenogenesis.

Natural vegetative reproduction is mostly a process found in herbaceous and woody perennial plants, and typically involves structural modifications of the stem or roots and in a few species leaves.

Most plant species that employ vegetative reproduction do so as a means to perennialize the plants, allowing them to survive from one season to the next and often facilitating their expansion in size. A plant that persists in a location through vegetative reproduction of individuals constitutes a clonal colony ; a single rametor apparent individual, of a clonal colony is genetically identical to all others in the same colony. The distance that a plant can move during vegetative reproduction is limited, though some plants can produce ramets from branching rhizomes or stolons that cover a wide area, often in only a few growing seasons.

In a sense, this process is not one of reproduction but one of survival and expansion of biomass of the individual. When an individual organism increases in size via cell multiplication and remains intact, the process is called vegetative growth. However, in vegetative reproduction, the new plants that result are new individuals in almost every respect except genetic.

A major disadvantage to vegetative reproduction, is the transmission of pathogens from parent to offspring; it is uncommon for pathogens to be transmitted from the plant to its seeds in sexual reproduction or in apomixisthough there are occasions when it occurs.

Seeds generated by apomixis are a means of asexual reproduction, involving the formation and dispersal of seeds that do not originate from the fertilization of the embryos. Hawkweed Hieraciumdandelion Taraxacumsome Citrus Citrus and Kentucky blue grass Poa pratensis all use this form of asexual reproduction.

Pseudogamy occurs in some plants that have apomictic seeds, where pollination is often needed to initiate embryo growth, though the pollen contributes no genetic material to the developing offspring.

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction where the offspring comes from one parent only, thus, inheriting the characteristics of the parent. A rhizome is a modified underground stem serving as an organ of vegetative reproduction; the growing tips of the rhizome can separate as new plants, e. Prostrate aerial stems, called runners or stolonsare important vegetative reproduction organs in some species, such as the strawberrynumerous grassesand some ferns. Adventitious buds form on roots near the ground surface, on damaged stems as on the stumps of cut treesor on old roots.

These develop into above-ground stems and leaves. A form of budding called suckering is the reproduction or regeneration of a plant by shoots that arise from an existing root system.

Sexual plant reproduction definition that characteristically produce suckers include Elm UlmusDandelion Taraxacumand many members of the Rose family such as Rosa and Rubus. Plants like onion Allium cepahyacinth Hyacinthnarcissus Narcissus and tulips Tulipa reproduce by dividing their underground bulbs into more bulbs.

Other plants like Sexual plant reproduction definition Solanum tuberosum and dahlia Dahlia reproduce by a similar method involving underground tubers.

Gladioli and crocuses Crocus reproduce in a similar way with corms. The most common form of plant reproduction utilized by people is seeds, but a number of asexual methods are utilized which are usually enhancements of natural processes, including: Asexual methods are most often used to propagate cultivars with individual desirable characteristics that do not come true from seed.

In horticulture, a "cutting" is a branch that has been cut off from a Sexual plant reproduction definition plant below an internode and then rooted, often with the help of a rooting liquid or powder containing hormones. When a full root has formed and leaves begin to sprout anew, the clone is a self-sufficient plant, [4] genetically identical to the mother plant.

Examples include cuttings from the stems of blackberries Rubus occidentalisAfrican violets Saintpauliaverbenas Verbena to produce new plants. A related use of cuttings is graftingwhere a stem or bud is joined onto a different stem. Nurseries offer for sale trees with Sexual plant reproduction definition stems that can produce four or more varieties of related fruits, including apples.

The most common usage of grafting is the propagation of cultivars onto already rooted plants, sometimes the rootstock is used to dwarf the plants or protect them from root damaging pathogens.

Since vegetatively propagated plants are clones, they are important tools in plant research. When a clone is grown in various conditions, differences in growth can be ascribed to environmental effects instead of genetic differences.

Plant reproduction is the process...

Sexual reproduction involves two fundamental processes: In between these two processes, different types of plants and algae vary, but many of them, including all land plantsundergo alternation of generationswith two different multicellular structures Sexual plant reproduction definitiona gametophyte and a sporophyte.

The gametophyte is the multicellular structure plant that is haploidcontaining a single set of Sexual plant reproduction definition in each cell. The gametophyte produces male or female gametes or bothby a process of cell division called mitosis. The fusion of male and female gametes fertilization produces a diploid zygotewhich develops by mitotic cell divisions into a multicellular sporophyte.

POLLINATION

The mature sporophyte produces spores by meiosissometimes referred to as " reduction division " because the chromosome pairs are separated once again to form single sets. In mosses and liverworts the gametophyte is relatively large, and the sporophyte is a much smaller structure that is never separated from the gametophyte.

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