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ISBN hard cover: Health risk assessment—Developing countries. Environmental management—Health aspects—Developing countries. Sustainable development—Health aspects— Developing countries. Economic development—Health aspects—Developing countries. Environmental and human health risk Catedra de economie asexual reproduction An overview 3 Mattheus F. Laboy-Nieves and Evens Emmanuel 2. Environmental management in Brazil: A case study of risk management in the Caribbean Region 41 Eddie N.
Laboy-Nieves and Julio A. Cost-benefit analysis to enhance the risk management decision making process 61 Adalberto Bosque and Fred C. Laboy-Nieves Management of surface and groundwater resources 7. A case study from the Caribbean Region Antonio E.
The potential of Thillandsia sp. Health-related aspects of wastewater reuse in urban truck farming: Application of low-cost sorbents to remove chromium from industrial wastewater discharges Iris N. Viability of the upflow anaerobic sludge process for risk management of wastewater treatment Nancy Ma.
Many international environmental organizations, such as the World Watch Institute and Green Peace, have reported that global natural resources continue to be over- exploited. They also noted significant problems with environmental pollution, resource depletion, conflicting land uses, and quite often a general indolence of society when it comes to the protection of natural resources.
Hence, the natural environment
Catedra de economie asexual reproduction well as human wellbeing is at risk. There is thus a greater need than ever, in the midst of this present planetary crisis, for individuals as well as for institutions to continue their research, education and public outreach in order to better promote environmentally sensible economic growth, with an aim to better understand the interrelationship between human development and nature, "Catedra de economie asexual reproduction" to advocate for a more sustainable world.
The primary focus of this book is the use of a multidisciplinary team approach to assess and interpret the multitude of environmental hazards and risks, and to discuss the strategies that may be employed to manage them. The book expresses the viewpoints and experiences of faculty, scientists and graduate students representing 17 academic and research institutions from 11 countries worldwide.
It is hoped that this intellectual exercise will allow the reader to access reliable and updated information in order to better acquaint them with the environmental and human risks facing society, the communication and decision-making processes involved in sustainable economic development, the effective management of surface, ground and wastewater resources, and the need for the conservation not only of natural but also cultural assets.
Through the contents of this book, the authors and editors aim to provide natural resource managers, policy makers, researchers, government personnel, and faculty and students, with a comprehensive review of environmental and human health risk management, from the perspective of developing countries. The views expressed in this volume are those of the authors and not necessarily of the institutions to which they are affiliated.
We hope that this book will contribute to the advancement of research, management and education projects to produce reliable and practical information that will aid in the reduction of environmental and human health risks, especially for emerging nations.
Universidad del Turabo, Gurabo, Puerto Rico. Lyon University, Lyon, France. He has nearly 25 years experience in teaching undergraduate and graduate level courses related to environmental sciences. Catedra de economie asexual reproduction research interests are focused on environmental characterization and habitat analysis of tropical terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and the populations dynamics of shallow water sea cucumbers.
Laboy-Nieves has authored, co-authored, edited and peer-reviewed over 35 scientific publications. He serves as Scientific Advisor for many community, national, and international organizations. He has been on the Board of Directors of two companies. Goosen has published extensively with over papers, book chapters, books, and patents to his credit. Emmanuel has produced more than 50 publica- tions including 25 conference papers, and participated as peer reviewer for 10 inter- national Catedra de economie asexual reproduction.
His academic and research field are centered in methodological approaches of human health and ecological risk assessment of water and wastewater. An overview Mattheus F. Laboy-Nieves and Evens Emmanuel SUMMARY This chapter provides a brief overview of environmental and human health risk management in developing countries with an emphasis on communicating environ- mental risks and the decision making process, management of surface and ground- water resources, conservation of land, air, water and cultural assets, and risk management as it Catedra de economie asexual reproduction to wastewater reuse.
This is important so to improve the interpretation of a wide variety of information related to the holistic management of our environment. The synopsis presented here may hopefully be applied towards a reduction in the many environmental risks faced by society and assist in the better- ment of human health.
This has often affected the health of people living in those countries, as well as efforts to reach environmentally sustainable economic expansion Jabour et al.
This chapter presents and discusses the multidisciplinary aspects of managing environmental risks and their effects on individual wellbeing Communicating "Catedra de economie asexual reproduction" risks to the general populace as well as gaining a better understanding of the decision making process as it relates to sustainable development play major roles in achieving changes in attitudes that contribute to environmental awareness in society.
We can argue that the average person Catedra de economie asexual reproduction does not fully understand the basis of environmental risks or how to deal with them Hunt and Auster ; Azzone and Bertele Environmental education is in particular vital for young people who will be potential decision makers. Management of surface and groundwater resources is a crucial aspect for sustaina- ble growth in emerging nations OTHU Compounding the issue of water avail- ability is contamination of water supplies and a lack of wastewater treatment facilities Hillstrom and Hillstrom This affects human health.
Many firms currently operate and converse based on their triple performance i. The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of environmental and human health risk management in developing countries with an emphasis on communicating environmental risks and the decision making process, management of surface and groundwater resources, conservation of land, air, water and cultural assets, and risk management as it relates to wastewater reuse.
They argue that the increased visibility of global change, terrorism, industrialization and catastrophic emergencies underscores the potential for environmental related human tragedy along with economic, social, and political consequences. Therefore, environmental threat communication must be targeted, understandable, and effective without inadvertently provoking hostility, mistrust or panic. In addition, an important component of the risk is perception. Many low- income communities have been exposed to disproportionate environmental risks and disease.
Often companies, as well as news and governmental agencies have failed in their efforts to overcome public distrust in these communities. Communication is therefore a powerful and necessary tool to help solve this delema. Knowing how to communicate information is essential. This process requires a sound structure and organization focusing on social, epidemiological, environmen- tal, behavioral, and administrative elements USDHHS Diverse audiences perceive communicated information differently thus the risk assessment process should think about cultural diversity, values, and language and communication skills of the target audience.
Face to face communication is generally the most effective form to divulgate the message, especially to small audiences. One consequence of improved communication in society is the growth of environ- mental consciousness in companies.
This has brought changes in their organizational routine, called environmental management see Chapter 3; as well as Jabour et al.
The planning and organizational practices include environmental considera- tions in the decisions-making process, the establishment of ecological policies, and the adoption of green management tools Catedra de economie asexual reproduction as ISO Certification. While organizations can be classified into three stages or categories i. Communicating environmental risks and the decision making process is brought into focus by Laboy-Nieves and Oms see Chapter 4 who assessed tsunami hazards in the Caribbean Region.
An overview 5 as shown by the recent catastrophe in Haiti. The tsunamigenic potential of a massive submarine landslide in two carbonate amphitheater south of the Puerto Rico Trench was evaluated. The majority of the islanders of the Caribbean lives and works in the coastal zone as a result of an increasing sea level-based tourism industry. The struc- tures that support residential settlements and the economic connection in Catedra de economie asexual reproduction coastal areas reflect a high degree of vulnerability to a strike by a tsunami.
Laboy-Nieves and Oms Chapter 4 examined the urgent need to increase public awareness on the possible impact that a major tsunami could have in the Caribbean, placing emphasis on Puerto Rico. The question was raised about who is responsible for the high risk developments along the coastlines of the islands in the Caribbean Region, such as Puerto Rico and "Catedra de economie asexual reproduction" Beatley et al. By allowing urban construction to occur in flooding areas, islanders also become willing participants and must bear some responsibility of the possible consequences of the tsunami danger.
Morales noted that this lack of public awareness is in part due to poor and errant environmental administration. A legitimate role of the government is to take action as effectively as possible to reduce risks.
To quantify health risk reduction, Bosque and Schaffner Chapter 5 argued that we must determine the value that society is willing to pay in order to save a human life. Cost-benefit analysis CBAfor instance, has been employed to enhance the risk management decision making process Tietenberg and Lewis Governments have used the CBA in the evaluation of regulations and actions that will affect the environment and the general public throughout risk reduction.
Chapter 6 noted that to determine whether or not we are living in a sustainable way, information is needed about the ecological, economic and social conditions of the environment in which we live. They report that genuine savings GSan indicator developed by the World Bank, measures the rate of savings of an economy taking into account investment in human capital, depletion of natural capital and damage caused by carbon Catedra de economie asexual reproduction emissions.
However, the present GS does not consider water as a renewable resource. This type of combined analysis is particularly significant for developing countries i.
The AGS enables an institution to determine whether the growth is caused by the consumption of fixed capital, or resource depletion such as water, or the damage caused by CO2 emissions. This can be compounded by poor water management practices and an inadequate infrastructure Silveira Recurrent catastrophic floods, for instance, have huge social and economic effects.
Latin America, the most water resource rich area of the world, paradoxically experiences local shortages in supply and quality of water, due to negative impacts from pollutants, deforestation, damming, mining and the pressure from an increasing human population Hillstrom and Hillstrom Phillips Chapter 7 argued that while countries such as Costa Rica have an admirable record of good governance and management of forest resources, they have not sufficiently addressed how to manage their water resources.
The same fresh water management challenges even confound countries with the most Catedra de economie asexual reproduction economies in the world Jackson et al.
Phillips concluded that balancing population and economic growth against the availability of economic resources will continue to "Catedra de economie asexual reproduction" the ability of
Catedra de economie asexual reproduction states to manage their surface and groundwater resources. To be successful, the solu- tion will require a broad-based comprehensive adaptive management plan involving all stakeholders Gregory et al.
A good example is the large-scale environmental restoration project occurring in the Everglades in Florida Redfield Their discussions highlight the importance of hydrological data collection activities which enable a further understanding of the catchment behavior. Emphasis is given on the need of integration of actors involved in storm water drain- age.
It was built by a part- nership of a multidisciplinary team representing universities, research laboratories, engineers, and the community OTHU The Program is based on long term approaches to understand and interconnect natural sciences with hydraulics, social science and economics.
The infiltration of urban storm water runoff is considered as one of the main factors in the deterioration of soils and groundwater quality. ensenyar, sigui eles ele la seva catedra de Basi lea, des de cursos internacio- nals o de. period of peace, economie growth and social vvelfare for \vhich \:ve have. altcrnation of sexual and asexual reproduction survives in populations of.