FSD is more typical as women age and is a progressive and widespread condition. Common symptoms associated with FSD include diminished vaginal lubrication, pain and discomfort upon intercourse, decreased sense of arousal and difficulty in achieving orgasm.
Only a small percentage of women seek medical attention. In comparison to the overwhelming research and treatment for erectile dysfunction in males, specifically with the development of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, significantly less has been explored regarding FSD and treatment is primarily limited to psychological therapy.
Several cardiovascular diseases have been linked with FSD including atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease and hypertension, all of which are also pathological conditions associated with aging and erectile dysfunction in men.
Using animal models, we have expanded our understanding of FSD, however a tremendous amount is still to Jon4lakers wife sexual dysfunction learned in order to properly treat women suffering from FSD.
The aim of this review is to provide the most current knowledge on FSD, advances in basic science addressing this dysfunction, and explore developing therapeutic options. Human sexual function is an essential component of life, both in species propagation as well as quality of life. Sexual dysfunction can lead to reduced quality of life and potentially procreative advancement.
Male sexual dysfunction, especially erectile dysfunction, has been extensively studied and effective therapies are available for men with this disorder.
However, female sexual dysfunction FSD is more complicated and significantly less is understood in comparison to male sexual dysfunction.
Therefore, the present review focuses on therapies available in development as well as challenges faced by investigators in the study of FSD. Other recent reviews articles may be useful Jon4lakers wife sexual dysfunction understanding additional aspects of FSD [ 1 — 3 ].
Sexual function results from a complex neurovascular process that is controlled by psychological and hormonal inputs. Like any coordinated physiological response, multiple systems are involved in this function. In respect to proper vaginal and Jon4lakers wife sexual dysfunction function, a sufficient blood supply is required for a satisfying sexual experience. Vaginal and labial data were derived from partial oxygen pressures detected at each tissue site [ 4 ] while magnetic resonance imaging of the clitoris measured changes in volume during neutral and stimulating visual imagery [ 5 ].
FSD is a multifaceted disorder, comprising anatomical, psychological, physiological, as well as social-interpersonal components. The psychogenic and hemodynamic events of the normal female sexual cycle. Psychosexual responses from arousal, orgasm and post orgasm frame approximate vaginal and labial pressures as well as clitoral volume. Increasing arousal that culminates in orgasm demonstrates increases in vaginal and labial pressures and filling of the clitoris.
Data are compiled from several sources referenced in the text. Appreciating the uniqueness of each FSD facet is critical in our understanding and potential treatment of FSD in general terms. Female sexual arousal disorders FASD can be defined as a recurrent inability to attain, or maintain until completion, sexual activity. The arousal response consists of vasocongestion in the pelvis, vaginal lubrication, and expansion and swelling of external genitals. Orgasmic disorders can be categorized with FASD and are described as the persistent "Jon4lakers wife sexual dysfunction" recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of, attaining orgasm following sufficient sexual stimulation and arousal that leads to personal distress.
Sexual pain disorders are another form of FSD and are diagnosed as followed: By comparison, the Massachusetts Male Aging Study found that However, FSD remains relatively understudied and therapeutic breakthroughs, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 PDE 5 inhibitors used for erectile dysfunction, have yet to be discovered. Throughout society, sexual disorders for women are influenced by both health-related and psychosocial factors. Taken together, this dynamic is associated with impaired quality of life and interpersonal relationships [ 11 ].
Significant improvements in overall clinical care have allowed the management of quality of life complications and not just the treatment of life-threatening diseases. Importantly, several studies have linked cardiovascular diseases with sexual dysfunction, in both females [ 12 ] and males [ 13 ]. Therefore, the treatment of FSD as purely a lifestyle disorder may severely underestimate the seriousness of the situation.
Recently, Schwarz et al. Indeed, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women with chronic compensated heart failure suggests a reduction in quality of life. "Jon4lakers wife sexual dysfunction" to the extensive sexual function studies conducted in diabetic men [ 15 ], substantially less is known regarding diabetic women.
However, recent studies have demonstrated that diabetic women experience increased incidences of sexual dysfunction [ 16 — 18 ], including reduced sex drive, little to no arousal, vaginal dryness, difficulty in achieving orgasm and overall diminished sexual satisfaction [ 16 ]. Despite these observations, correlation between FSD and diabetes is not without controversy.
A report on the frequency of psychosexual difficulties from diabetic women found secondary sexual dysfunction was reported in These authors concluded that, in diabetic women, sexual dysfunction was prominently a psychogenic complication.
Therefore, a more comprehensive understanding of the Jon4lakers wife sexual dysfunction and treatment options of FSD is crucial for improving existing conditions seen in women, as well as preventative measures of future, more fatal, pathologies. Animal models have been used to female sexual function and dysfunction over the past 20 years and several experimental approaches have been developed.
Particular aspects of female sexual function, more specifically desire and peripheral arousal, are currently under investigation in basic science laboratory settings. Accurately modeling FSD is an experimental challenge. However, investigating comorbid diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and depression models, allows end-point measurements involved in FSD to be examined. This section will describe techniques currently in use and the challenges that investigators face studying FSD.
Sexual desire in humans can be described as the presence of desire for sexual activity. Desire in animal models can be assessed by monitoring particular appetitive behaviors that occur during copulation as well as from certain unconditioned copulatory determinants [ 20 ].
In female rats, increased dopamine release in the striatum and nucleus accumbens leads to repetitive voluntary return by depressing an access lever to attain access to male rats [ 2122 ]. These authors also showed that cage pacing an animalistic sexual desire response was increased when the same central pathways were stimulated [ 2324 ].
Translating findings similar to these to the clinical setting has revealed that dopamine agonists discussed further in the following section indeed increase sexual desire in women and is a viable treatment option for women that suffer from HSDD.