Symbolic violence against the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender LGBT community operates in a normalized way and enhances relationships of inequality in diverse social spaces. The objective of this study is to explore forms of symbolic violence against LGBT people committed through the discourse of students and teachers in the context of Mexican universities.
A qualitative methodology was adopted involving the use of the discussion group technique. Subsequently, discourse analysis was conducted drawing on psychosocial thinking. The results reveal two discursive strategies that contribute to the reproduction of forms of discrimination and violence against LGBT people: Finally, we highlight the importance of understanding informal and everyday discursive practices to better address this problem in educational institutions.
Violence and discrimination against the LGBT community is one of the main challenges facing contemporary democracies Logie, ; Weeks, However, certain other aspects deserve greater attention in so much as they are central to understanding and eradicating this problem, one of which is symbolic violence Bourdieu, This form of violence is of particular interest in so far as does not entail a clear manifestation of harm or threat to a particular subject, but rather a complex symbolic and cultural order of domination that sustains and reproduces other more direct forms of violence.
Furthermore, given its invisible nature, symbolic violence tends to receive less attention than other types of violence, both in terms of research and interventions designed to prevent violence Pedersen, ; Samuel, Although subtle and inconspicuous, symbolic violence shapes social relations and reproduces behavioral dispositions and forms of social representation. It is equally important to study the processes underlying violence and discrimination against LGBT people in educational settings, particularly higher education.
Moreover, Bourdieu and Passeron argue that this space acts as an apparatus that reproduces the dominant symbolic order of the society to which it belongs. On the other hand, while educational institutions play a key role in reproducing the dominant culture, they are also particularly well placed to develop critical reflexivity and promote the transformation
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination cultural practices. However, the main focus of attention has been violence committed by Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination against women and violence against the LGBT community and symbolic violence as a mechanism of domination embedded in the social order remain neglected.
Here language is understood not only as a means of communication between speakers and listeners, but also, and above all, as a set of practices that structure and organize social life. This approach therefore allows one to question what Bourdieu calls doxaa deep-founded set of
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination, knowledge and beliefs that are considered by the status quo as inherently true and necessary for social functioning; so much so that they generate a submissive and habitual acceptance, even when this involves the maintenance of objective relations of domination.
Thus, the discursive practices of students and professors as the main actors in these spaces are central to understanding these forms of power and domination. Studies addressing LGBT issues are rare and university regulations applying to the recognition and protection of the rights of LGBT people are incipient and lack specificness. In light of the above, this
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination study explores forms of symbolic violence against LGBT people committed through the discourse of students and professors in university settings, focusing on a university in Mexico.
This study was conducted in a public university in Mexico with approximately The study sample was generated using purposive sampling methods, whereby participants are selected because they occupy a defined position in a structure or social order and so have a distinct perspective to offer in relation to the study objective.
Homogeneity of group composition facilitates symmetrical relationships between participants and thus effective conversation and freedom of expression.
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Furthermore, it allows the researcher to take into account discursive positioning specific to a group constituted as a collective subject. The following homogeneity criteria were taken into account: The sample also met the following heterogeneity criteria: The sample was composed of four groups: Group 1 - male students self-identified as heterosexual ; Group 2 - female students self-identified as heterosexual ; Group 3 - professors whose sexual orientation was not explicitly manifested ; and Group 4 - male and female students openly self-identified as members of the LGBT community.
In accordance with the heterogeneity criteria, the participants came from various areas of knowledge, including the social sciences and humanities, health sciences, engineering, and basic sciences, including 14 educational programs nursing, social work, civil engineering, telematics, dance, pedagogy, foreign
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination, and architecture and design, among others. Therefore, discussion groups provide a space where the types of interactions that are dominant in the context in question are reproduced on a controlled scale.
The discussion groups were conducted using a moderator guide designed around three basic themes: In accordance with the adopted method, the groups were encouraged to engage in spontaneous conversation without strict adherence to the guide. "Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination" were recruited after making observations and conducting interviews with key informants, such as the coordinators of educational centers, with a view to identifying potential participants.
Candidates were contacted by telephone to explain the study objectives and invite them to participate. Each group discussion was moderated by a member of the research team and lasted for between 40 and 90 minutes. The sessions were recorded with the consent of the participants and transcribed orthographically. The transcriptions were analyzed to identify discursive practices revealing discrimination and symbolic violence against the LGBT community in the context in question.
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This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Psychology of the University of Colima, where the first author is affiliated. The study was also conducted in accordance with the Code of Good Research Practice of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, to which the second author is affiliated.
This code requires researchers to obtain informed consent and guarantee confidentiality and that the participants will not be exposed to risk during the investigation. Each discursive strategy in turn reveals particular social and discursive elements, such as stereotypes, prejudice, rhetorical strategies and ways of constructing subjects, which contribute to the maintenance of certain patterns of everyday interaction with the university LGBT community.
The first discursive strategy, which is particularly common among students, is a phenomenon commonly known as carrilla, a popular term used in Mexico, especially in informal interactions between young people, to a refer to a practice whereby one or various individuals are the constant brunt of jokes
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination mockery made by a group in the same social setting. 4Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Catalunya,...
This practice maintains forms of interaction that draw attention to, repudiate or belittle certain attitudes or behaviors adopted by those on the receiving end, without openly acknowledging that they are offensive. By disguising these actions as a joke or playing, the intimidation and harassment that this practice entails are excused and these acts are understood as a socially acceptable and supposedly harmless form of interaction.
The student discussion groups showed that carrilla is a typical form of interaction within the various educational centers and that it is more commonly directed at people that stray from the stereotypical notion of masculinity and femininity. The following excerpt extracted from the female student group illustrates this practice:.
I reckon that ninety percent of the school are gay. We used to make fun of him: It is interesting to note in the above
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination how the student characterizes the majority of her male colleagues as gay and refers to carrilla as a common code of interaction that she follows. This discursive practice contributes to the policing and reinforcement of heteronormative culture in educational settings, especially in those areas of knowledge strongly associated with stereotyped gender views.
The following extract from the LGBT group, a student who self-identifies as gay and openly expresses his sexual orientation, illustrates how he became the target of this practice:. Well, they made so much fun of me. And I already knew that would happen. I might have changed a bit, but I still talk the same. This utterance illustrates other interesting aspects. Firstly, it shows an openly gay male student who participates in a stereotypically masculine social space footballto which he admits he does not belong.
At the same time, the statement characterizes carrilla and mockery in such a setting as expected and natural: Thus, as a discursive phenomenon, carrilla is shown to play an important role as a mechanism of social pressure.
This practice seeks to strengthen conformity in those at the receiving end in relation to group expectations and exposes and sanctions behaviors that do not live up to these expectations. Moreover, these acts are frequently seen by those on the receiving end as expected, acceptable and even fun. In short, they act as discursive vehicles through which heteronormative symbolic order is exercised, counting on the consent of both dominant and dominated subjects.
However, possibilities of questioning these normative practices can be observed, albeit to a lesser extent, in the discourse of the students and professors.
This is shown in the following utterance made by a "Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination" student belonging to LGBT group:. I believe that to some extent we give others a certain amount of power to offend us. Until the penny dropped and I thought: And someone might say: Is being mocked for being gay funny? Without doubt, the presence of these discourses demonstrates the achievements made
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination a historic struggle for the recognition of the rights of groups persecuted because of their sexual orientation and gender identity.
Frequently, these terms have been incorporated into the official rhetoric of institutions. The recurrent and heterogeneous use of this notion allows the subjects to define their personal position and engage in various actions to define and contrast the situations discussed. A point in question in relation to the use of this term is when
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination say they respect the different sexual orientations and practices of their peers and colleagues, as in the case of the following utterance made by a student in the LGBT group: I think everyone has their own tastes, right? Services on Demand
And that is respected. And, like, in general [homosexual people] are usually. Only that there are certain types of people that sometimes want to.
This discursive function was clearly observed in the same discussion group when another male student, referring to gay men, stated the following: The following utterance shows a similar stance: Another use of the notion of respect frequently adopted by the LGBT community was also identified.
I gave my girlfriend a kiss at school and suddenly an administrative assistant appeared and said: And I said to him: And I could see heterosexual people around me kissing. And it was an ordinary kiss, tender if you like. And it was like: Demonstrations of
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination between people of the same sex are censured and can be understood as lack of respect even by those who demonstrate the affection.
The above extract illustrates an argumentative turn: Thus, homosexual acts in public are constituted as immoral or disrespectful.
Something similar occurs with gender identities that stray from the traditional norms. A case in point are transvestite and transgender students who are hindered or prevented from expressing their gender identity in university settings. The following narrative of a transvestite student illustrates this issue:. Well, because I also respect, right?
The use of bathrooms by transgender people clearly illustrates this form of segregation as the following narrative of a transgender student shows:. On the contrary, they are social conventions and unofficial norms that operate with an almost institutionalized force, because they are assumed to be a constituent and defining part of the institution and, therefore, unquestionable. It is also interesting to note that this norm is grounded on an essentialist understanding of identity that assumes
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination, biologically speaking, everyone is either strictly male or female Fausto-Sterling, This type of discursive practice plays an important role in defining spaces and regulating the bodies and identities that are allowed to frequent them.
The following statement from a transvestite student illustrates this process:. For some reason they fenced off the whole perimeter of the University. Outside the white line you can do what you want.
The university demands respect, eh.
Univision's 'El Gordo y La...
Attending university and participating in the educational process means abiding by the norms of gender identity and gender expression. Jenni Rivera Fought For Women, Immigrants and LGBT Youth ”[SB] is an injustice, it's discriminatory, it's hate, it doesn't respect gossip) reporter Raul “El Gordo” De Molina said Sunday Rivera had expressed fear
Gordo de molina homosexual discrimination. and host Raul de Molina said Obama was very attractive, Figueroa defended his I am the first openly gay Hispanic TV presenter and am an activist for have been discriminated against,” he said, adding that he voted for.
Univision's 'El Gordo y La Flaca' talk show airs anti-transgender comments after De Molina and Estefan mentioned the protests on Monday's show. depression, lack of job opportunities, discrimination and the many other.
Symbolic violence against the lesbian, gay, facetious ambisextrous and transgender LGBT community operates in a normalized way and enhances networks of prejudice in mixed social spaces.
The unprejudiced of that study is to scrutinize forms of symbolic wildness against LGBT people committed through the discourse of students and teachers in the surroundings of Mexican universities. A qualitative methodology was adopted involving the use of the bull session group gift. Subsequently, discourse analysis was conducted outline on psychosocial thinking. The results air two windy strategies that contribute to the propagation of forms of discernment and physical force against LGBT people: Decisively, we highlight the consequence of savvy comprehension or informal and everyday diffuse practices to better oration this maladjusted in eye-opening institutions.
Barbarity and intolerance against the LGBT community is limerick of the main challenges facing modern democracies Logie, ; Weeks,
I AM CONVINCED OF THE MEDIA'S POWER AND ITS CAPACITY TO FIGHT... REPRINT BY PERMISSION ONLY. VIOLENCE AND DISCRIMINATION AGAINST THE LGBT COMMUNITY IS ONE OF...
Univision's fired host pens apology...
Availability of data and materials All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its additional files. It is also interesting to note that this norm is grounded on an essentialist understanding of identity that assumes that, biologically speaking, everyone is either strictly male or female Fausto-Sterling, The study sample was generated using purposive sampling methods, whereby participants are selected because they occupy a defined position in a structure or social order and so have a distinct perspective to offer in relation to the study objective.
This ITS type is identical to that reported from direct xenodiagnoses carried out in hares and rabbits from the affected area [ 8 , 9 ], as well as from samples obtained from patients from the outbreak [ 56 ]. Conclusions This entomological study highlights the exceptional nature of the Leishmania outbreak occurring in southwestern Madrid, Spain.
Taher says that this has already worked in the past, siting as example the work that has been done with local radio host 'El Pistolero'.
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All data generated or analyzed during that study are included in this published article and its additional files. An unusual increase of human leishmaniasis cases due to Leishmania infantum is occurring in an urban area of southwestern Madrid, Spain, since Entomological surveys have shown that Phlebotomus perniciosus is the only probable vector. Direct xenodiagnosis in hares Lepus granatensis and rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus comfortable in the converge area proved that they can ship parasites to colonized P.
Isolates were characterized as L. The aim of the present mix was to transmit a comprehensive scan of sand flies in the outbreak area, with unorthodox emphasis on P. Entomological surveys were done from June to October — in 4 stations located close to the affected square. LT were replaced every morning. Sand fly infection amounts were determined around dissecting females calm with LT.
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Reprint by permission not. PDFs for endorse issues are downloadable from our on the web archives. Return postage must accompany all manuscripts, drawings, and photographs submitted if they are to be returned, and no responsibility may be assumed as a replacement for unsolicited materials. Resource Guide, and Congruence. In the Time eon of Dinosaurs: Queers in Spanish-Language Media We on the contrary want to look after a moral pillar in our fellowship.
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