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Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial


CnidariaAnthozoaScleractiniaa new species of reef coral from the Red Sea. This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Bouwmeester, Jessica, Benzoni, Francesca, Baird, Andrew H. Taxonomic classification of the reef coral family Lobophylliidae Cnidaria: Following detailed revisions of the closely related families Merulinidae, Mussidae, Montastraeidae, and Diploastraeidae, this monograph focuses on the taxonomy of Lobophylliidae.

Specifically, we studied 44 of a total of 54 living lobophylliid species from all 11 genera based on an integrative analysis of colony, corallite, and subcorallite morphology with molecular sequence data. By examining coral skeletal features at three distinct levels — macromorphology, micromorphology, and microstructure — we built a morphological matrix comprising 46 characters.

Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial were analysed via maximum parsimony and transformed onto a robust molecular phylogeny inferred using two nuclear histone H3 and internal transcribed spacers and one mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I DNA loci. The results suggest that micromorphological characters exhibit the lowest level of homoplasy within Lobophylliidae.

Molecular and morphological trees show that Symphyllia, Parascolymia, and Australomussa should be considered junior synonyms of Lobophyllia, whereas Lobophyllia pachysepta needs to be transferred to Acanthastrea. Our analyses also lend strong support to recent revisions of Acanthastrea, which has been reorganized into five separate genera Lobophyllia, Acanthastrea, Homophyllia, Sclerophyllia, and Micromussaand to the establishment Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial Australophyllia.

Cynarina and the monotypic Moseleya remain unchanged, and there are insufficient data to redefine Oxypora, Echinophyllia, and Echinomorpha. Finally, all lobophylliid genera are diagnosed under the phylogenetic classification system proposed here, which will facilitate the placement of extinct taxa on the scleractinian tree of life.

Mitochondrial and nuclear genes suggest that stony corals are monophyletic but most families of stony corals are not Order ScleractiniaClass AnthozoaPhylum Cnidaria.

Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Modern hard corals Class Hexacorallia; Order Scleractinia are widely studied because of their fundamental role in reef building and their superb fossil record extending back to the Triassic. Nevertheless, interpretations of their evolutionary relationships have Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial in flux for over a decade. Recent analyses undermine the legitimacy of traditional suborders, families and genera, and suggest that a non-skeletal sister clade Order Corallimorpharia might be imbedded within the stony corals.

However, these studies either sampled a relatively limited array of taxa or assembled trees from heterogeneous data sets. Here we provide a more comprehensive analysis of Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial species, 75 genera, 17 families and various outgroups, based on two mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, with analyses of nuclear genes ss-tubulin, ribosomal DNA of a subset of taxa to test unexpected relationships.

Eleven of 16 families were found to be polyphyletic. Strikingly, over one third of all families as conventionally defined contain representatives from the highly divergent "robust" and "complex" clades. However, the recent suggestion that corallimorpharians are true corals that have lost their skeletons was not upheld. Relationships were supported not only by mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but also often by morphological characters which had been ignored or never noted previously.

The concordance of molecular characters and more carefully examined morphological characters suggests a future of greater taxonomic stability, as well as the potential to trace the evolutionary history of this ecologically important group using fossils. Corals in the genus Porites are among the major framework builders of reef structures worldwide, yet the genus has been challenging to study due to a lack of informative molecular markers.

The gene arrangement of P. This mitochondrial genome contributes essential data to work towards a better understanding of evolutionary relationships within Porites.

Abstract A new scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea kausti sp. It is characterised by the presence of eight primary septa, unlike the other species of the genus, which have six, ten or 12 primary septa.

Institut de Ciències del Mar...

The new species has morphological affinities with Cyphastrea microphthalma, from which it can be distinguished by the lower number of septa on average eight instead of tenand smaller calices and corallites. This species was observed in the northern and central Red Sea and appears to be absent from the southern Red Sea. CnidariaAnthozoaScleractinia: A new reef coral species from the red sea and its phylogenetic relationships.

Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial new scleractinian coral species, Pachyseris inattesa sp. Despite a superficial resemblance with some species in the agariciid genus Leptoseris with which it has been previously confused, P.

This genus, once part of the Agariciidae, is comprised of five extant species and is widely distributed throughout the tropical Indo-Pacific. It is currently incertae sedis as a result of recent molecular analysis and appears to be closely related to the Euphylliidae.

A molecular phylogenetic reconstruction including P.

The results confirm that P. A new scleractinian coral species, Cyphastrea kausti sp.


Full Text Available Marine invertebrates, such as sponges, tunicates and cnidarians zoantharians and scleractinian corals, form functional assemblages, known as holobionts, with numerous microbes.

This type of species-specific symbiotic association can be a repository of myriad valuable low molecular weight organic compounds, bioactive peptides and enzymes. The zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis Cnidaria: Anthozoa is one such example of a marine holobiont that inhabits the coastal reefs of the tropical Atlantic coast and is an interesting source of secondary metabolites and biologically active polypeptides.

In the present study, we analyzed the entire holo-transcriptome of P. In addition to hundreds of predicted enzymes that Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial into the classes of hydrolases, oxidoreductases and transferases that were found, novel enzyme precursors with multiple activities in single structures and enzymes with incomplete Enzyme Commission numbers were revealed.

Our results indicated the predictive expression of thirteen multifunctional enzymes and enzyme sequences with partially characterized activities, distributed in 23 sub-subclasses.

These predicted enzyme structures and activities can prospectively be harnessed for applications in diverse areas of industrial and pharmaceutical biotechnology. The phylogenetic position of the solitary zoanthid genus Sphenopus Cnidaria: The zoanthid genus Sphenopus Cnidaria: Zoantharialike many other brachycnemic zoanthids, is found in shallow subtropical and tropical waters, but is uniquely unitary solitary, monostomatousazooxanthellate, and free-living. With sparse knowledge of its phylogenetic position, this.

Endolithic algae in living stony corals: Algal concentrations under influence of depth-dependent light conditions and coral Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial fluorescence in Agaricia agaricites L and Meandrina meandrites L. Caribbean Region 71, Amsterdam.

Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin "Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial" in zoanthids.

Here, based on a transcriptome analysis of the zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis, numerous predicted polypeptides with canonical venom protein features are identified. These polypeptides comprise putative proteins from different toxin families: Altogether, the complex array of venom-related transcripts that are identified in P. Hidden among Sea Anemones: Sea anemones order Actiniaria are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes.

Actiniaria comprises approximately 1, species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidariato date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic.

Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods.

These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: We erect a new genus and family for B.

Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae. Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein.

We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders.

Hidden among sea anemones: Full Text Available Sea anemones order Actiniaria are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes.

We also erect subgroups within these two newly. Full Text Available Cnidaria is a rich phylum that includes thousands of marine species. In this study, we focused on Anthozoa and Hydrozoa that are represented by the Nematostella vectensis Sea anemone and Hydra magnipapillata genomes.

We present a method for ranking the toxin-like candidates from complete proteomes of Cnidaria. Toxin-like functions were revealed using ClanTox, a statistical machine-learning predictor trained on ion channel inhibitors from venomous animals.

Fundamental features that were emphasized in training ClanTox include cysteines and their spacing along the sequences. Among the 83, proteins derived from Cnidaria representatives, we found candidates that fulfill the properties of toxin-like-proteins, the vast majority of which were previously unrecognized as toxins. An additional short proteins exhibit characteristics of toxin-like proteins at a moderate degree of confidence.

Based on our prediction methodology and manual annotation, we inferred functions for over of these proteins. Such functions include protease inhibitors, membrane pore formation, ion channel blockers and metal binding proteins.

Many of the proteins belong to small families of paralogs. We conclude that the evolutionary expansion of toxin-like proteins in Cnidaria contributes to their fitness in the complex environment of the aquatic ecosystem. Review on hard coral recruitment Cnidaria: Full Text Available Recruitment, defined and measured as the incorporation of new individuals i. Because most coralpopulations are self-feeding, a breakdown in recruitment would lead to local extinction.

Recruitment indirectly affects both renewal andmaintenance of existing and future coral communities, coral reef biodiversity bottom-up effect and Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial coral reef resilience.

This process has been used as an indirect measure of individual reproductive success fitness and is the final stage of larval dispersal leading to population connectivity.

As a result, recruitment has been proposed as an indicator of coral-reef health in marine protected areas, as well as a central aspect of the decision-making process concerning management and conservation. The creation of management plans to promote impact mitigation, rehabilitation and conservation of the Colombian coral reefs is a necessity that requires firstly, a review and integration of existing literature on scleractinian coral recruitment "Esponjas de mar reproduccion asexual artificial" Colombia and secondly, larger scale field studies.

This motivated us to summarize and analyze all existing information on coral recruitment to determine the state of knowledge, isolate patterns, identify gaps, and suggest future lines of research.

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