Involuntary commitment or civil commitment also known informally as sectioning or being sectioned  in some jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom  is a legal process through which an individual who is deemed by a qualified agent to have symptoms of severe mental disorder is ordered by a court into treatment in a psychiatric hospital inpatient or in the community outpatient.
Criteria for civil commitment are established by laws which vary between nations. Commitment proceedings often follow a period of emergency hospitalization, during which an individual with acute psychiatric symptoms is confined for a relatively short duration e. If civil commitment proceedings follow, then the evaluation is presented Having someone committed a formal court hearing "Having someone committed" testimony and other evidence may also be submitted.
The subject of the hearing is typically entitled to legal counsel and may challenge a commitment order through habeas corpus. Historically, until the first third of the twentieth century or later in most jurisdictions, all committals to public psychiatric facilities and most committals to private ones were involuntary.
Since then, there have been alternating trends towards the abolition or substantial reduction of involuntary commitment,  a trend known as " deinstitutionalisation ". In
Having someone committed jurisdictions, involuntary commitment is applied to individuals believed to be experiencing a mental illness that impairs their ability to reason to such an
Having someone committed that the agents of the law, state, or courts determine that decisions will be made for the individual under a legal framework.
In some jurisdictions, this is a proceeding distinct from being found incompetent. Involuntary commitment is used in some degree for each of the following although different jurisdictions have different criteria. Some jurisdictions limit court-ordered treatment to individuals who meet statutory criteria for presenting a danger to self or others.
Other jurisdictions have criteria. Training is gradually becoming available in mental health first aid to equip community members such as teachers, school administrators, police officers, and medical workers with training in recognizing, and authority in managing, situations where involuntary evaluations of behavior are applicable under law. Observation is sometimes used to determine whether a person warrants involuntary commitment.
It is not always clear on a relatively brief examination whether a person is psychotic or otherwise warrants commitment. Austria, Belgium, Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Russia, Taiwan, Ontario Canadaand the United States have adopted commitment criteria based on the presumed danger of the defendant to self or to others. People with psychosis are occasionally driven by their delusions or hallucinations to harm themselves or others.
People with certain types of personality disorders can occasionally present a danger to themselves or others. This concern has found expression in the standards for involuntary commitment in every US state and in other countries as the danger to self or others standard, sometimes supplemented by the requirement that the danger be imminent.
In some jurisdictions, [ which? Starting in the s, there has been a worldwide trend toward moving psychiatric patients from hospital settings to less restricting settings in the community, a shift known as "deinstitutionalization". Because the shift was typically not accompanied by a commensurate development of community-based services, critics say that deinstitutionalization has led to large numbers of people who would once have been inpatients as instead being incarcerated or becoming homeless.
Laura's LawKendra's Law. Since the late s the Italian physician Antonucci questioned the basis themselves of psychiatry through the dismantling of the psychiatric hospitals Osservanza and Luigi Lolli and the liberation — and restitution to life — of the people there secluded.
Before the s deinstitutionalization there were earlier efforts to free psychiatric patients. Doctor Philippe Pinel — ordered the removal of chains from patients.
The UN runs programs in some countries to assist in this process. At certain places and times, the practice of involuntary commitment has been used for the suppression
Having someone committed dissentor in a punitive way.
In the former Soviet Unionpsychiatric hospitals were used as prisons to isolate political prisoners from the rest of society. British playwright Tom Stoppard wrote Every Good Boy Deserves Favour about the relationship between a patient and his doctor Having someone committed one of these hospitals.
Stoppard was inspired by a meeting with a Russian exile.