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Sexual health survey questions


School-based sex education has the potential to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to promote positive sexual health at the individual, family and community level. The principal component analysis revealed four factors to be extracted; sexual health norms and beliefs, source of sexual health information, sexual health knowledge and understanding, and level of sexual awareness. Chronbach's alpha for each factors were above the cut-off point 0.

Face validity indicated that the questions were clear to the majority of the respondent. The finding suggests that SHQ is a valid and reliable instrument to be used in schools to measure sexual health knowledge and understanding. Further analysis such as structured Sexual health survey questions modelling SEM and confirmatory factor analysis could make the questionnaire more robust and applicable to the wider school population.

Age appropriate sex education offers young people the Sexual health survey questions to explore emotions, feelings, and personal values, and to gain knowledge about sexually transmitted infections STIs and learn about their reproductive biology. As a population, they are at risk of unwanted pregnancies, STIs and coerced early sexual relationships. However, very little is known about their knowledge and understanding of sexual health. In many countries, secondary schools are the sources of sexual health information for young people.

However, there are wide variations and standardizations among schools, in terms of topics covered; teaching method; the role of the teacher; training for teachers; levels of student participation; and the age at which topics are taught. Many schools deliver sex education in a classroom setting, which may not help pupils to examine their attitudes and values or to explore facts and feelings in relation to their everyday life. In Nepal, pupils are taught basic sex education at higher secondary level grade 9 and 10 using the textbook health, population, and the environment.

However, it is frequently reported that teaching sexual health in school is often very poor, which is directly associated with teacher's embarrassment, lack of knowledge, and poor teaching techniques. Some questionnaires used elsewhere are found to be very useful and helpful however, their reliability and validity in the Nepalese context remains questionable.

Well-conducted pilot studies can be very useful to others embarking on projects using similar "Sexual health survey questions" or instruments. In this study, we used the guidelines suggested by Peat et al. Considering social, cultural, and demographic characteristics of Nepal, a draft Sexual Health Questionnaire SHQ was developed on the basis of sexual health research conducted elsewhere.

A total of 52 questionnaire items were developed and distributed to sexual health experts for content validity. Remaining questionnaire items were further tested to pupils for plausibility, validity, and reliability. These later items were phrased using a typical 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree 1 to strongly agree 5. The 5-point Likert scale has a middle neutral point, which provides the respondent more room to think about which side they would Sexual health survey questions to go for the answers.

Polarities of the questions were checked, and items were phrased so as to avoid vagueness, biases, double-barreled questions, double negatives, and protests. The methods used to validate the SHQ were translational validity content validity and face validityconstruct validity principal component analysis [PCA] and reliability internal consistency and test-retest.

The detail statistical model is given below [ Figure 1 ]. During the period between November and Februarya pilot study was carried out among respondents in Nepal using a self-administered questionnaire.

The study included pupils from three secondary schools in Makwanpur district and nine purposively chosen sexual health experts across Nepal. Details about sociobackground variables such as gender, age, educational level, ethnicity, and family's educational status were obtained from them. Respondents were told that their anonymity would be assured in the study. The data were cleaned after double entry and discrepancies were resolved with manual checking.

Part 2 - Illustrative Questionnaire...

Ethical approval was obtained from District Education Office, Makwanpur prior to conducting this study. All participants signed a written informed consent before participation, and each of them was free to discontinue participation at any time.

To maximize the response rate, all questionnaires were delivered and collected face-to-face by the main researcher. The respondents filled in the questionnaires by themselves and any unclear questions were explained on the site without inducement. To estimate the validity of the questionnaire items, the content validity index CVI was used. The 4-point Likert scale has a tendency to over-scale and exaggerates the answers.

There is no middle point for the experts to either choose or think about what they should choose. Any item not meeting the above requirement was dropped from further considerations. Face validity specifies the questionnaire appears to be Sexual health survey questions to the study purpose and fit to the content area.


It is the easiest validation process to carry out. It evaluates the appearance of Sexual health survey questions questionnaire in terms of feasibility, readability, consistency of style and formatting, and the clarity of "Sexual health survey questions" language used. An evaluation form was developed to determine the face validity of the questionnaire in terms of the clarity of the wording, the likelihood the target audience would be able to answer questions, and the layout and style.

A total of pupils from grade nine were given 38 questionnaire items mainly related to sexual health knowledge and understanding. These items were distributed to the participants in a classroom setting. This was performed particularly to check any missing data and for the follow-up purpose. The questionnaires were collected after an hour and were considered for further analysis.

Inconsistencies in the data e. It was avoided using Sexual health survey questions check to reduce erroneously. The overall reliability of the remaining questionnaire, obtained from pupils, was examined in a 5-point Likert scale: This indicated how well the items fitted together conceptually. An exploratory factor analysis EFA is used to provide score validity evidence through the examination of the internal structure of study measures.

Such evidence can increase the utility of the instruments in the evaluation and ultimately increase the creditability and efficacy of assessment. An EFA using the principal component analysis PCA produces linear combinations of the original variable to generate the axes. The general form for the formula on the first component in a PCA is:. PCA describes the degree to which the Sexual health survey questions in the instrument relate Sexual health survey questions the relevant theoretical construct.

Bartlett's test of Sphericity tests the null hypothesis that there is no relationship between Sexual health survey questions questionnaire items. Internal consistency reliability looks at the inter-item correlations within an instrument. It indicates how well the items fit together theoretically. For both the total score and the resulting subscales, internal consistency was assessed with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. This type of reliability is estimated by administering the same instrument to the same sample of respondents on two different occasions.

The assumption is that there is no substantial change in the construct under study between the given 2 sampling time points. However, a high correlation between the scores at the 2 times point indicates that the instrument is stable over time. This is the researcher, who needs to consider factors such as the effects of time on knowledge to make an appropriate decision about the time interval between the tests.

The questionnaire was administered to 25 pupils from grade 10, aged 14 to 18 years randomly selected from one of those three secondary schools in Hetauda municipality. They completed the questionnaire on two different occasions; at baseline and 7 weeks later. The data were ordinal with 4-point Likert scale strongly disagree to strongly agree and the scales were not continuous.

Thus, a nonparametric statistical test was carried out using the Wilcoxon nonparametric rank correlations. A total of respondents were invited to participate in the study; consented and returned Out of 49 pupils contacted from grade 10, 24 were given questionnaires related to face validity.

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The other 25 pupils were given the questionnaires for test-retest reliability analysis at two stages: One at the 1 st week and the other 7 weeks later. The total mean age of pupils grade 9 and 10 was Nine sexual health experts reviewed 52 questionnaire items.

Do you live at home? Who do you live with? How many other family members live in the same household as you? What is your father's occupational status? What is your mother's occupational status? Boy and girl should have sex before they are married?

You should be in love before having sex? These questions were excluded from further analysis [ Table 2 Sexual health survey questions. List of 28 nonvalidated questionnaires from a total of 52 questionnaires items indicating with symbols a—f.

Furthermore, a plausibility check for evaluation was performed from 38 questionnaire items excluding 6 sociobackground variables collected from grade 9 pupils. The result showed that 3 items were not plausible for reliability analysis: Parents as a Sexual health survey questions of sexual Sexual health survey questions information, older relatives provide sexual health information, and religious leaders provide sexual health information.

Thus, these items were also removed from further analysis. The remaining 35 questions were further examined to assess their overall reliability using the item-total correlations and Cronbach's alpha. The initial result showed that 6 questionnaire items were not reliable for further analysis.

Hence, all these 6 questionnaire items were removed, and the analysis was rerun before considering them for further tests. To perform the EFA, variables should correlate fairly well, but not perfectly.

The remaining 29 questionnaire items were looked for the correlation coefficient. It was observed that one item: Similarly, four other items: So these five items were also removed from the further analysis [ Table 2 ].

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In the first instance, 3 questions: Hence, these questions were removed one-by-one, considering smaller values first and bigger values at the end. The total variance suggested six factors to be extracted, which accounted for cumulative However, the scree plot showed between two and six factors would be more reasonable to develop.