Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The panel was charged with recommending best methods for obtaining survey statistics on rape and sexual assault on household surveys of the
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment of Justice Statistics BJS. In reviewing all of the material presented earlier in this report, the panel thinks that it is highly likely that the National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS is underestimating rape and sexual assault.
The panel, with limited resources, was not able to measure the extent of such an undercount with statistical rigor. The previous chapter discusses four major obstacles to quality on the current NCVS: As detailed in Chapter 9only one of the four obstacles, the last one—use of ambiguous terms—can be readily addressed within the structure and operations of the current NCVS without negatively impacting the estimation of other important types of criminal victimizations.
These obstacles led to the conclusion that the needed changes could not be adequately implemented within the framework of the existing survey, and that best practices for measuring rape and sexual assault would require that these measurements be decoupled from the NCVS.
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In the rest of this chapter, the panel presents its recommendations for developing the recommended new survey for estimating rape and sexual assault, for important features of that survey, and for research needed as part of that development.
As a part of the entire program design, the panel also offers several recommendations regarding improved training and monitoring of interviewers and regarding obtaining useful input and feedback from data users and the broader statistical community. The proportion of a population with a specific attribute in this case, having been victimized by rape or sexual assault can be estimated with greater precision by isolating population subgroups with relatively higher attribute rates and then sampling
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment subgroups more intensively than the rest of the target population.
The higher the attribute rate in a subgroup, the greater potential gains in precision. The first challenge in this approach is to identify subgroups of people who are at higher risk of rape and sexual assault criminal victimizations than the general population.
A second challenge is to identify such groups in
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment way that does not isolate previous victims or make them fearful or reintroduce the trauma of the incident. In spite of the difficulty, the introduction of one or more additional sampling frames derived from sources likely to include persons victimized by rape and sexual assault will be a more cost-efficient alternative to the current NCVS frame.
The panel strongly urges BJS to explore these opportunities. An enhanced design would be anchored by a frame with coverage of the general population, such as the current NCVS frame.
An initial step toward this enhanced design would be to more
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment target stratification in selecting the general-purpose sample to oversample areas where the income. A second step would be to sample the group quarters frame with relatively higher rates because many types of group quarters may include relatively high concentrations of victims of rape and sexual assault e.
This general-purpose frame would be enhanced with one or more additional frames that would focus on specific subgroups that are at higher risk for sexual assault but are broader than a list of known sexual assault victims. Sources that might be used as a sample frame include, but are not limited to. These sources are not lists of rape and sexual assault victims but would include a much higher percentage of victims than seen in the general population providing a statistical advantage to using them.
Specialized sample selection and recruitment strategies may need to be developed to minimize concerns from victims who are found through supplemental frame sources. Following those procedures, the sample of individuals would be interviewed using the same survey instrument regardless of the frame from which they were selected.
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment, because of the addition of these specialized frames, the resulting sample is likely to have more positive responses to the questions on sexual victimization.
This will make the estimates more precise, while the survey weights will ensure that this process does not artificially inflate the criminal victimization rate.
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This approach has significant drawbacks. First, it will be very difficult to get access to some of the administrative sources for the supplemental frames. For example, police reports are not available to the general public, but they may be available
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment some form to a government agency.
Third, there is concern that a victim who has experienced sexual abuse may not want his or her name shared. These are serious concerns that will need to be worked through, but there is prior experience in the survey field working with respondent recruitment from these types of sources. A fourth drawback is that working with more frames and the overlap between frames would add complexity and costs for frame development, sampling, and recruitment Hartley, ; Lohr, In addition, because one cannot know in advance how well this approach would work, there is a basic question of whether the precision gains from the design will outweigh the added complexity.
What is considered sexual harassment...
The exact answer to this question can only be determined through specific research. However, the panel did a preliminary cost-efficiency analysis that was very encouraging; it merits a thorough examination by BJS. For example, individuals who were treated for trauma in an emergency room are also a part of the U. For simplification in this illustration, overlap between the two frames is handled by screening out members of the administrative frame from household members in the sample chosen from the household frame.
Under this simplified case, the panel observed the relative precision of a cost-variance optimized dual-frame estimator in comparison with a single-household frame of the proportion of the population with the attribute.
What is the initial management?
In a specific example, the dual-frame design had a variance that was percent lower than the cost-equivalent variance for the single-household frame design see Box and more detail in Appendix E.
What does matter is the proportion of the population in the administrative frame that has the attribute see Table As the table shows, the relative efficiency of the dual frame decreases significantly as that proportion decreases.
The variance reduction shown in this table would be somewhat offset with a more complex formula that takes into account the cluster effects of the sample. Research is needed to identify specific administrative frames for which
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment is a higher risk of rape and sexual assault that may be used in this enhanced multiple-frame design without infringing on the privacy of victims. Research is also needed to further assess the effects of the cluster.
Thus the proportion of the population within this administrative frame, experiencing this criminal victimization, P Ais estimated as:. The population proportion of the same attribute based on Criminal Victimization, is much smaller.
Thus the cost per completed interview. If the cost of data collection using the administrative frame is twice that of the household frame, then the optimal allocation would have a sample size offrom the household frame and from the administrative frame.
Who is sexually assaulted?
This implies that the variance for the dual-frame design with these assumptions is 45 percent lower than the cost-equivalent variance for the household-frame design. Looking at the same scenario again, when the cost of data collection using the administrative frame is ten 10 times that of the household frame, then the relative variance is:.
This research should also explore various practical strategies for integrating the samples chosen from the multiple frames. For instance, supplementary administrative lists could be developed within selected primary sampling units PSUs; from the household frame so that national administrative frames would not be necessary. Implementation of a new
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment survey to measure rape and sexual assault would have a major impact on the current BJS budget.
The panel is sensitive to these budget concerns, particularly in the current fiscal climate. In doing so, we do not retreat from our charge to recommend a plan for best methods; rather, we present these lower-cost variations for BJS to consider within the realities of its budget priorities.
The panel first considered whether a traditional supplement would suffice in lieu of a completely independent survey. Individuals selected for a supplement would have been respondents on the NCVS survey over several waves of data collection. The demographics of the households and. To avoid affecting the regular estimates, such supplements are usually administered to a subset of respondents who have rotated off the base survey. However, by the time they were asked to complete the supplement, their responses would still be in the context of a criminal victimization survey and they are unlikely to move beyond that context regardless of how the supplement is structured.
Thus, if a supplement is used, it would need to be administered on the initial wave rather than on the households that are rotating off the NCVS. The design of that survey is very inefficient for measuring rape and sexual assault. With an independent survey, the sample design could be developed to be more efficient for measuring these specific criminal victimizations.
The new survey may work better as a supplement to one of these other surveys rather than to the NCVS. Because of the continuous design of the ACS, the Census Bureau could select individual household members by appropriate demographic and geographic characteristics who are at higher risk for rape and sexual assault. Another lower-cost option would be to use "Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment" basic NCVS sample design same PSUs and clusters and select a large and separate sample for measuring rape and sexual assault.
A household from this sample could be screened based on demographics of household members. Women ages who have been shown to be of higher risk for rape and sexual assault would be oversampled as the respondents in this survey.
One way to reduce costs is to reduce the sample size or the frequency of data collection. BJS currently publishes annual estimates of the criminal victimizations of rape and sexual assault. The panel does not recommend less frequent data collection or publication, but one cost-saving variation would be to develop a formal rolling estimation process similar to that used for the ACS, which has a relatively modest annual sample size for the intent to produce small area estimates.
This type of approach
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment currently used on an ad hoc basis on the NCVS for some special studies and research but not for annual estimates. The ACS uses a rolling estimation process in which multiple years of data generally 3 years for most estimates are pooled for estimation. Annually, data from the latest data collection are rolled into the estimates while data from the oldest year are rotated out.
This process provides stable year-to-year estimates for small areas, even with modest sample sizes. Some more recent recommendations for the ACS are to use some time-series modeling across years rather than just a pooling of data. These ideas would also be useful to pursue with the estimates of rape and sexual assault.
Another variation would be for data from the NCVS to be used in conjunction with data from the recommended new survey to reduce overall data collection costs. The new survey could be viewed as a vehicle to measure the underestimation of rape and sexual assault on the NCVS. Data from both surveys could be modeled together to estimate this underestimation. The recommended new survey would be fielded on a fixed schedule, such as biennially or every 3 years.
The NCVS could be modified to use behaviorally specific questions as the panel recommends and continue to be fielded annually. The NCVS estimates of rape and sexual assault would be adjusted for underestimation based on the new survey and continue to measure year-to-year change in criminal victimization rates.
Considerable research would be needed to develop and calibrate these models. However, if that is not possible, then the Bureau should conduct the recommended new survey on a fixed schedule, such as every 2
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment 3 years, and use data from both the National Crime Victimization Survey and the new survey to calculate annual estimates of rape and sexual assault. To measure the incidences of rape and sexual assault, the NCVS asks respondents to remember events in the past and to report only those that occurred within a specific reference period, currently 6 months.
When a victim remembers a traumatic event such as a rape or sexual assault, he or she may remember the event as having occurred more recently than it actually did. This could result in counting that event as part of a reference period when in reality it occurred before the beginning of that period, thus over-counting for that period. This phenomenon is known as forward telescoping. In an experimental design, the study looked at collecting recall of expenditures on alterations and repairs made by resident homeowners.
The underreporting might not be uniform by subgroups, and BJS may lack sufficient data to accurately adjust by subgroup. Unless these adjustments could be extended beyond the estimates to the microdata, the differences would create difficulties in the analysis of rape and sexual assault victimizations. The authors also concluded that shorter reference periods 1 month rather than 3 months produced higher estimates of expenditures. Because of the potential for telescoping, the NCVS originally did not use the data collected in its first wave in the estimation of criminal victimization.
It currently uses data from initial interviews, with an adjustment to minimize overreporting during these initial contacts. In a recent analysis of NCVS data to look at the issues of telescoping, the role of the bounding interview, recency, and time-in-sample, Fay and Li found mixed results. More crimes were reported as having occurred in the month immediately preceding the interview than
Input devices 5 examples of sexual harassment other months in the reference period.
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They concluded Fay and Li,p. The panel strongly supports the need for further research. We have explored the role of technology in sexual harassment. communication technologies, Interacting with Computers, v n.5, Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is one of the most effective ways to input text, in particular, for ultra-small devices.
Charades is a good example, where one player. Examples of sexual harassment include, but are not limited to: social networks, blogs, cell phones, texts, or other similar devices or forms of contact are used . exist, the preliminary inquiry will be completed within five (5) business days.
will be reviewed with both the Reporting and Responding Parties for input as to a. We asked five experts in combating harassment — two harassment “Men commit the vast majority of rapes, sexual assault and sexual.
Rape and sexual assault
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The panel was charged with recommending best methods in spite of obtaining survey statistics on rape and sexual assault on household surveys of the Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS. In reviewing all of the components presented earlier in this report, the panel thinks that it is incomparably likely that the National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS is underestimating rape and sexual assault.
The panel, with predetermined resources, was not able to parcel out the extent of such an undercount with statistical rigor. The previous chapter discusses four important obstacles to je sais quoi on the known NCVS: As complete in Chapter 9 , only anyone of the four obstacles, the finish finally one—use of misty terms—can be charitably addressed within the structure and operations of the prevalent NCVS without negatively impacting the respect of other relevant types of illicit victimizations.
The university prohibits such conduct, regardless of whether it is related to an instance of sexual misconduct. Rape and sexual assault Sexual harassment is one of the most common types of harassment in the workplace. Here are some examples... Sexual misconduct What is considered sexual harassment at work? And how does it differ from non- sexual harassment? Sexual harassment in...
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The university will support its members who choose to intervene in this fashion. Campus counselors are available to help students free of charge and can be seen on an emergency basis during normal business hours.
This includes an examination of the characteristics of the subpopulation that is sexually victimized on a frequent basis series victimization to provide data to better represent this subpopulation in the overall victimization rates. In the event that the university receives a report of prohibited conduct from a minor, the university will make all necessary reports and disclosures pursuant to Ohio law. Instead, individuals whose demographics would put them at greater risk for sexual criminalization females, certain age groups, etc.
Some respondents may not view their victimization as criminal.
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