Same-sex marriagethe practice of marriage between two men or between two women. Although same-sex marriage has been regulated through law, religion, and custom in most countries of the world, the legal and social responses have ranged from celebration on the one hand to criminalization on the other.
Some scholars, most notably the Yale professor and historian John Boswell —94have argued that same-sex unions were recognized by the Roman Catholic Church in medieval Europe, although others have disputed this claim.
Scholars and the general public became increasingly interested in the issue during the late 20th century, a period when attitudes toward homosexuality and laws regulating homosexual behaviour were liberalized, particularly in western Europe and the United States. The issue of same-sex marriage frequently sparked emotional and political clashes between supporters and opponents.
By the early 21st century, several jurisdictions, both at the national and subnational levels, had legalized same-sex marriage; in other jurisdictions, constitutional measures were adopted to prevent same-sex marriages from being sanctioned, or laws were enacted that refused to recognize such marriages performed elsewhere.
That the same act was evaluated so differently by various groups indicates its importance as a social issue in the early 21st century; it also demonstrates the Definition humoristique sur le marriage homosexual marriage to which cultural diversity persisted both within and among countries. For tables on same-sex marriage around the world, in the United States, and in Australia, see below.
Perhaps the earliest systematic analyses of marriage and kinship were conducted by the Swiss legal historian Johann Jakob Bachofen and the American ethnologist Lewis Henry Morgan ; by the midth century an enormous variety of marriage and sexual customs across cultures had been Definition humoristique sur le marriage homosexual marriage by such scholars.
Notably, they found that most cultures expressed an ideal form of marriage and an ideal set of marriage partners, while also practicing flexibility in the application of those ideals.
Among the more common forms so documented were common-law marriage ; morganatic marriagein which titles and property do not pass to children; exchange marriagein which a sister and a brother from one family marry a brother and a sister from another; and group marriages based on polygyny co-wives or polyandry co-husbands. Ideal matches have included those between cross-cousinsbetween parallel cousins, to a group of sisters in polygyny or brothers in polyandryor between different age sets.
In many cultures the exchange of some form of surety, such as bride service, bridewealthor dowryhas been a traditional part of the marriage contract. Cultures that openly accepted homosexuality, of which there were many, generally had nonmarital categories of partnership through which such bonds could be expressed and socially regulated. Conversely, other cultures essentially denied the existence of same-sex intimacy, or at least deemed it an unseemly topic for discussion of any sort.
Over time the historical and traditional cultures originally recorded by the likes of Bachofen and Morgan slowly succumbed to the homogenization imposed by colonialism.
Although a multiplicity of marriage practices once existed, conquering nations typically forced local cultures to conform to colonial belief and administrative systems.
Whether Egyptian, Vijayanagaran, Roman, Ottoman, Mongol, Chinese, European, or other, empires have long fostered or, in some cases, imposed the widespread adoption of a relatively small number of religious and legal systems. By the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the perspectives of one or more of the world religions— BuddhismHinduismJudaismIslamand Christianity —and their associated civil practices "Definition humoristique sur le marriage homosexual marriage" often invoked during national discussions of same-sex marriage.
Perhaps because systems of religion and systems of civil authority often reflect and support each other, the countries that had reached consensus on the issue by the early s tended to have a single dominant religious affiliation across the population; many such places had a single, state-sponsored religion.
This was the case in both Iran, where a strong Muslim theocracy had criminalized same-sex intimacy, and Denmarkwhere the findings of a conference of Evangelical Lutheran bishops representing the state religion had helped smooth the way for the first national recognition of same-sex relationships through registered partnerships.
In other cases, the cultural homogeneity supported by the dominant religion did not result in the application of doctrine to the civic realm but may nonetheless have fostered a smoother series of discussions among the citizenry: Belgium and Spain had legalized same-sex marriage, for instance, despite official opposition from their predominant
Definition humoristique sur le marriage homosexual marriage institution, the Roman Catholic Church.
The existence of religious pluralities within a country seems to have had a less determinate effect on the outcome of same-sex marriage debates.
In some such countries, including the United Statesconsensus on this issue was difficult to reach. On Definition humoristique sur le marriage homosexual marriage other hand, the Netherlands —the first country to grant equal marriage rights to same-sex couples —was religiously diverseas was Canadawhich did so in Most of the world religions have at some points in their histories opposed same-sex marriage for one or more of the following stated reasons: In the early 21st century, however, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Buddhism all spoke with more than one voice on this issue.
Orthodox Judaism opposed same-sex marriage, while the Reform, Reconstructionist, and Conservative traditions allowed for it.
Most Christian denominations opposed it, while the United Church of Christthe United Church of Canadaand the Religious Society of Friends Quakers took a more favourable stand or allowed individual churches autonomy in the matter. The Unitarian Universalist churches and the gay-oriented Universal Fellowship of Metropolitan Community Churches fully accepted same-sex marriage. Hinduismwithout a sole leader or hierarchyallowed some Hindus to accept the practice while others were virulently opposed.
The three major schools of Buddhism —Theravada, Mahayana, and Vajrayana—stressed the attainment of enlightenment Definition humoristique sur le marriage homosexual marriage a basic theme; most Buddhist literature therefore viewed all marriage as a choice between the two individuals involved. Sexuality is but one of many areas where religious and civic authority interact; definitions of the purpose of marriage is another.
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Same-sex marriage is now legal from one end to the other the USA. Sadly, not person agrees. Such is the hastiness of modern news and communication that announcement of the Inimitable Court decision was essentially without hesitation followed by furious objection s and doom-laden predictions of the collapse of society for a variety of reason s. What if there are genuine scientific reasons to fear same-sex marriage?
Here are just some possibilities we should brace ourselves for.
Terry McFadden looks at the upcoming marriage equality referendum from an anthropological point of view to make a case for a more nuanced understanding of same-sex marriage. Ireland improved the legal and social standing of a minority of Irish citizens seeking common recognition and equality under the law. But how and to what extent can a yes vote really change the shape of marriage?
To answer this question and to encourage a more informed reflection on this issue, I have turned to those most expert on the human condition — anthropologists. Different forms of marriage have long occupied the thoughts of anthropologists. Two notable anthropologists, Kathleen Gough and Ward Goodenough , have for some decades sought to find common denominators for marriage in different societies. Several competing definitions of marriage have been proposed in an attempt to encompass the wide variety of marital practices observed across and through cultures both western and non-western.
In an analysis of marriage among the Nayar, a polyandrous society in India, Gough found that the group lacked a husband role in the conventional sense, yet the institution functioned quite well. Likewise in the west, unitary roles were often divided between non-parental residents uncles, aunts etc. Lovers in western and non-western marriage have also acted as the socially accepted pro-creators of offspring, including in property and social perpetuity for absent or dead fathers.
This forced Gough to disregard sexual access as a key element of marriage and to instead define it in terms of the legitimacy of offspring. This is currently an issue for gay adoption and child support rights.
- Sexuality is but one of many areas where religious and civic authority interact; definitions of the purpose of marriage is another. In one view, the. Dean Burnett: Many have claimed that legalising same-sex marriage threatens civilisation. How might this occur? There are some scientific.
- The primary concern for the No campaign in the same-sex marriage referendum is how far a yes vote would stretch the meaning of the.
- same-sex marriage | History, Status Around the World, & Facts | arabchildrencongress.com
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- How same-sex marriage could ruin civilisation | Dean Burnett | Science | The Guardian
- Define same-sex (adjective) and get synonyms. same-sex (adjective) meaning, pronunciation and more by Macmillan Dictionary. same-sex marriage.
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