Conceived and designed the experiments: The Xujiayao-Houjiayao site in Nihewan Basin is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China for having provided a rich collection of hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts. Based on biostratigraphical correlation and exploratory results from a variety of dating methods, the site has been widely accepted as early Upper Pleistocene in time.
This explains why the site was initially named Xujiayao, but later renamed Xujiayao-Houjiayao by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China and simply as Houjiayao by the archaeologists in Hebei Province. Here we will follow its formal nomenclature as Xujiayao-Houjiayao hereafter X-Hbut refer specifically to Locality With an exceedingly rich recovery of archaeological and fossil remains the X-H site is among the most important Paleolithic sites in China.
The lower one shows the positions of the Localities and of the site modified from Wang et al. Based on faunal composition Jia and Wei [ 1 ] first broadly attributed the site to the Upper Pleistocene.
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Later, with the discovery several meters above the cultural deposits of a strongly deformed periglacial involution layer, believed to be formed during the last glacial, Jia et al. In addition, Liu
Wei hua fdating al. With all the geochronological information considered together, the X-H site has been widely accepted by the prehistoric community as early Upper Pleistocene in time [ 513 ].
However, further paleomagnetic studies by an international team of Sino-Norwegian scientists challenged the above consensus. The reversed polarity zone previously recognized by Liu et al. As only one geomagnetic event was identified,
Wei hua fdating et al. By correlating the magnetic signature with the marine oxygen isotope records, Wang et al. A Photograph of the cross-section revealed during the excavation inthe lower left inset shows more clearly an unconformity believed to mark the boundary between the third terrace of Liyi River and the underlying Nihewan Formation.
Also given are the U-series dates on fossil teeth [ 7 ]. Superscripts on ages indicate the dating
Wei hua fdating B, Burial dating; U, U-series dating on fossils; M, Magnetostratigraphic dating.
Scholars from the prehistoric community hold different viewpoints on the possibility of a much older X-H site.
While Huang et al. On the other hand, Wu and Trinkaus [ 21 ] and Wu et al. To address the decade-long controversy described above, and to date the cultural deposits directly, a cross-check by an independent and well-established radio-isotopic dating method is needed.
The Liyi River has cut the older Nihewan Formation and brought about new sediments, leaving a — m wide
Wei hua fdating and 15—20 m high escarpments composed of three terraces. The hominin and mammalian fossils and lithic artifacts were recovered from a yellowish-green clay layer at depths of 8—12 m below the ground surface [ 12 ]. In andresearchers from Hebei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics organized a new
Wei hua fdating of systematic excavation at the northwest corner of the site.
The depositional sequence was divided into 15 layers Fig. The upper Layers 1—6 are sterile and composed of interlayered fine sand, clay and silty clay.
Layer 7 consists of silty clay with some mammalian fossils discovered in its lower horizon. Layer 8 is composed of a reddish brown paleosol, Layers 9—11 are bluish or yellowish brown clayey deposits, and the lower Layers 12—15 are greyish blue, dark grey or black sandy clay or clayey sand.
Among them, Layers 8—11 and 14 are artifact- and fossil-bearing. The excavators defined two cultural units, the upper one Layers 8—11, 7. In this way it was found that the cultural deposits extend over an area of more than m 2and that the depositional sequence is more or less continuous. The continuity of the fossil and artifact-bearing layers is observable on the existing cross-section from the previous excavations S2 Fig. During a field investigation at the site, we found that Layer 14 contains sufficient coarse quartz grains for burial dating with 26 Al and 10 Be.
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For better illustrating the stratigraphic position of the two samples for dating, the three cross-sections given as Figs. Apart from the continuity of the cultural deposits as discussed above, the in situ formation of these deposits on the flood plain of Liyi River is supported by the fact that none of the stone artifacts observed by the 4 th author of this paper and only a few of the fossil
Wei hua fdating [ 20 ] of the site bears any sign of fluvial wear.
Taken together, we are assured that, in spite of the presence of gravelly or sandy lenses and depositional hiatuses as shown in S3 Fig. Xie and his colleagues. According to the
Wei hua fdating rules for protecting the archaeological sites, approval from the Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics is necessary, but no specific permission is required.
The field work did not involve any endangered or protected species. These radionuclides are formed by secondary cosmic rays that penetrate into the ground surface and react with nuclei within mineral grains.
As quartz mineral grains are gradually eroded from bedrock and transported through river networks, they are exposed to secondary cosmic rays for a sufficiently long time to acquire an inventory of 26 Al and 10 Be.
If the quartz minerals are then rapidly and deeply buried in a river terrace or a cave, then the production of cosmogenic nuclides drastically slows down or even ceases, and each radionuclide decays according to its specific half-life. This basic scheme offers a means of dating burial events of quartz minerals [ 32
Wei hua fdating ]. If the site is really as old as suggested by the paleomagnetic studies, burial dating may provide supporting evidence for its validity.
Otherwise, if the site is closer to the biostratigraphical age
Wei hua fdating, burial dating may give ages statistically indistinguishable from zero. For HJY-QZ several kilograms of quartzose deposits were Wei hua fdating and rinsed with water to remove silt and clay. The remaining material was taken back to the laboratory for further treatment. HCl was added to dissolve the carbonate and phosphate components.
For either sample type, grains of 0. Magnetic and gravimetric separations were "Wei hua fdating" to separate quartz from all other contaminating minerals. Purified quartz samples were dissolved in 5: After HF volatilization, Al and Be were separated and purified on ion-exchange columns in 0.
The 26 Al and 10 Be concentrations and calculated burial ages are presented in Table 1
Wei hua fdating, and other experiment and measurement data related to the age calculation are given in S1 Table. The two samples yield consistent age results 0. The weighted mean of the two measurements, 1. We cannot strictly exclude the possibility that the two X-H samples have experienced complicated exposure-burial histories, but the agreement between the two ages within measurement error and their relatively young ages render it unlikely.
The second assumption necessary for accurate
Wei hua fdating dating is that the samples should be buried deeply enough to ignore post-burial production of cosmogenic nuclides by muons. Since the two samples of this study were taken from the same Layer 14 at a depth of Because of the possibility for the samples to have experienced complicated exposure-burial histories, and also because the samples were collected from the lower cultural unit, their burial ages should be regarded as a maxima for the X-H site.
The weighted mean age of
Wei hua fdating two samples, 0. Rather than the widely accepted previous age estimate of early Upper Pleistocene, this site is more likely late Middle Pleistocene in age. Though widely applied and highly useful in geochronological studies, it must be kept
Wei hua fdating mind "Wei hua fdating" paleomagnetic stratigraphy is not an absolute dating method, and that extrapolation from even firmly dated magnetic boundaries relies on implicit assumptions of continuous and steady sedimentation that can be difficult to satisfy in fluvio-lacustrine sediments.
Cited here as an example, a depositional hiatus marking a sedimentation break between and ka was recognized within the Haojiatai section at the eastern margin of Nihewan Basin [ 35 ]. At the X-H site, three erosional surfaces were recognized by Jia and Wei [ 1 ]. During the excavation of — and also during the latest one intwo unconformities were identified, one between Layers 11 and 12 See Fig. The latter one is believed to be the erosional unconformity between the third terrace of the Liyi River and the underlying Nihewan Formation Fig.
The results of this paper support strongly this interpretation. The evolutionary position of Middle Pleistocene hominins in eastern Asia, generally
Wei hua fdating to as archaic, earlier or pre-modern H. The presence of archaic H. Over the past more than two decades, however, more reliable dating methods such as U-series dating of speleothem calcite has pushed back the dates of the key hominin and contemporaneous archaeological sites traditionally assigned to archaic H.
This hominin group was skilled at hunting horses [ 48 ], and their capacity of securing a regular source of animal fat and protein is strongly correlated with early evidence of modern human behavior [ 20 ]. By assigning a maximum age of 0. Along with the establishment of isochron technique to circumvent some of the geological complexities [ 5051 ], the recent improvement in the precision of 26 Al marks an important methodological milestone.
Burial dating with 26 Al and 10 Be is now a well-established and reasonably precise radio-isotopic dating method. Its further application will help to establish a reliable temporal framework for the mode of human evolution in East Asia.
A, B and C correspond to the Figs. By synthesizing the three cross-sections, the authors proposed a stratigraphical sequence as follows: Modern fluvial deposits or brown sandy topsoil ceramic fragments bearing0.
Yellowish brown silt reddishwithout clear horizontal but with vertical laminae, with a few small gravels and gravelly sandy lens, bearing Coelodonta antiquitatis tooth fragments, myospalax fontanieri fossils and Ostrich eggshells, up to 5 m thick Layer 8 in S2B and S2C Fig. Reddish silt, with a few gravels, 1—3 m thick Layer 7 in S2C Fig.
Yellowish green sandy clay, 4 m thick, with a
Wei hua fdating of 0. Brownish red clay paleosol0. Grayish blue, grayish green or grayish brown clay, horizontally stratified, with some localized thin layers of grayish white clay or grayish yellow silt. We Wei hua fdating like to thank the government of Yangyuan County for assistance in field work, and Mr.
We also are grateful to Robin Dennell, Jean-Jacques Bahain, Laurent Bruxelles and the other three anonymous referees for constructive comments and suggestions. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Published online Feb Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Jun 9; Accepted Jan This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are properly credited.
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