Female infertility refers to infertility in female humans. Infertility affects women from around the world, and the cultural and social stigma surrounding it varies. There is no unanimous definition of female infertility, because the definition depends on social and physical characteristics which may vary by culture and situation.
NICE guidelines state that: Primary infertility refers to the inability to give birth either because of not being able Tenna b wife sexual dysfunction become pregnant, or carry a child to live birth, which may include miscarriage or a stillborn child.
Female infertility varies widely by geographic location around the world. Inthere was an estimated Sub-Saharan Africa has Tenna b wife sexual dysfunction decreasing levels of primary infertility from to In Asia, the highest rates of combined secondary and primary infertility was in the South Central region, and then in the Southeast region, with the lowest rates in the Western areas.
Central and Western Latin America has some of the lowest rates of prevalence. Causes or factors of female infertility can basically be classified regarding whether they are acquired or genetic, or strictly by location. Although factors of female infertility can be classified as either acquired or genetic, female infertility is usually more or less a combination of nature and nurture.
Also, the presence of any single risk factor of female infertility such as smoking, mentioned further below does not necessarily cause infertility, and even if a woman is definitely infertile, the infertility cannot definitely be blamed on any single risk factor even if the risk factor is or has been present. In broad sense, acquired factors practically include any factor that is not based on a genetic mutationincluding any intrauterine exposure to toxins during fetal developmentwhich may present as infertility many years later as an adult.
A woman's fertility is affected by her age. The average age of a girl's first period menarche is However, the exact estimates of the chances of a woman to conceive after a Tenna b wife sexual dysfunction age are not clear, with research giving differing results.
The chances of a couple to successfully conceive at an advanced age depend on many factors, including the general health of a woman and the fertility of the male partner.
Tobacco smoking is harmful to the ovaries, and the degree of damage is dependent upon the amount and length of time a woman smokes or is exposed to a smoke-filled environment.
Also, cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and the uterine myometrium. Sexually transmitted infections are a leading cause of infertility. They often display few, if any visible symptoms, with the risk of failing to seek proper treatment in time to prevent decreased fertility.
Twelve percent of all infertility cases are a result of a woman either being underweight or overweight. Fat cells produce estrogen,  in addition to the primary sex organs. Too much body fat causes production of too much estrogen and the body begins to react as if it is on birth control, limiting the odds of getting Tenna b wife sexual dysfunction. A review from concluded that overweight and obese subfertile women have a reduced probability of successful fertility treatment and their pregnancies are associated with more complications and higher costs.
For ovulatory women, the study counted approximately live births for normal weight, live births for overweight and live births for obese women.
Chemotherapy poses a high risk of infertility. Chemotherapies with high risk of infertility include procarbazine and other alkylating drugs such as cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, busulfan, melphalan, chlorambucil and chlormethine.
Female infertility by chemotherapy appears to be secondary to premature ovarian failure by loss of primordial follicles.
Women may choose between several methods of fertility preservation prior to chemotherapy, including cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, oocytes or embryos. Factors contributing to the formation of antisperm antibodies in women are disturbance of normal immunoregulatory mechanisms, infection, violation of the integrity of the mucous membranes, accidental rape and unprotected oral or anal sex.
There are many genes wherein mutation causes female infertility, as shown in table below. Chromosomal abnormalities causing female infertility include Turner syndrome. Oocyte donation is an alternative for patients with Turner syndrome. Some of these gene or chromosome abnormalities cause intersex conditionssuch as androgen insensitivity syndrome.
Previously, a bicornuate uterus was thought to be associated with infertility,  but recent studies have not confirmed such an association. Diagnosis of infertility begins with a medical history and physical exam. Tenna b wife sexual dysfunction healthcare provider may order tests, including the following:.
There are genetic testing techniques under development to detect any mutation in genes associated with female infertility. If initial treatments are unsuccessful, referral is usually made to physicians who are fellowship trained as reproductive endocrinologists. These physicians treat reproductive disorders affecting Tenna b wife sexual dysfunction only women but also men, children, and teens.
The practice is primarily focused on helping their women to conceive and to correct any issues related to recurring pregnancy loss. Social stigma due to infertility is seen in many cultures throughout the world in varying forms. Wealth is sometimes measured by the number of children a woman has, as well as inheritance of property.
"Tenna b wife sexual dysfunction" In Nigeria and Cameroonland claims are decided by the number of children. Also, in some Sub-Saharan countries women may be denied inheritance if she did not bear any children  In some African and Asian countries a husband can deprive his infertile wife of food, shelter and other basic necessities like clothing.
In many cases, a woman who cannot bear children is excluded from social and cultural events including traditional ceremonies. This stigmatization is seen in Mozambique and Nigeria where infertile women have been treated as outcasts to society. The effect of infertility can lead to social shaming from internal and social norms surrounding pregnancy, Tenna b wife sexual dysfunction affects women around the world.
Men in some countries may find another wife when their first cannot produce a child, hoping that by sleeping with more women he will be able to produce his own child. In some cultures, including Botswana  and Nigeria,  women can select a woman with whom she allows her husband to sleep with in hopes of conceiving a child. Women may also sleep with other men in hopes of becoming pregnant. In many cases, the husband was not aware of the extra sexual relations and would not be informed if a woman became pregnant by another man.
Men and women can also turn to divorce in attempt to find a new partner with whom to bear a child. The emotional strain and stress that comes with infertility in the household can lead to the mistreatment and domestic abuse of a woman.
The devaluation of a wife due to her inability to conceive can lead to domestic abuse and emotional trauma such as victim blaming.