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Greek homosexuality wikipedia

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Pederasty or Greek homosexuality wikipedia US: Historically, pederasty has existed as a variety of customs and practices within different cultures.

The status of pederasty has changed over the course of history, at times Greek homosexuality wikipedia and at other times a crime.

In the history of Greek homosexuality wikipedia, its most structured cultural manifestation was Athenian pederastyand became most prominent in the 6th century BC. Greek pederasty's various forms were the subject of philosophic debates in which the purely carnal type was unfavorably compared with erotic friendships and moderate forms, known as Sophrosyne.

In most countries today, the local age of consent determines whether or not a person is considered legally competent to consent to sexual acts, and whether such contact is abusive to the young personunder the law.

Anthropologists propose three subdivisions of homosexuality: In his study of native cultures pederasty appears typically as a passing stage in which the adolescent is the beloved of an older male, remains as such until he reaches a certain developmental threshold, after which he in turn takes on Greek homosexuality wikipedia adolescent beloved of his own.

This model is judged by Gorer as socially viable, i. He adds that in many societies, pederasty has been the main subject of the arts and the main source of tender and elevated emotions. Some modern observers restrict the age of the younger partner to "generally between twelve and seventeen", [6] though historically the spread was somewhat greater.

The younger partner must, in some sense, not be fully mature; this could include young men in their late teens or early twenties. While relationships in ancient Greece involved boys from 12 to about 17 or 18, [8] in Renaissance Italy they typically involved boys between 14 and 19, [9] and in Japan the younger member ranged in age from 11 to about In antiquity, pederasty was seen as an educational institution for the inculcation of moral and cultural values in some cultures, [11] as well as a form of sexual expression.

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Its practice dates from the Archaic period onwards in Ancient Greecebut Cretan ritual objects that reflect an already-formalised practice date to the late Minoan civilizationin around BC.

While most Greek men engaged in relations with both girls and boys, [14] exceptions to the rule were known, some avoiding relations with women, and others rejecting relations with boys. In Ancient Romerelations with boys took a more "Greek homosexuality wikipedia" and less civic path, men taking advantage of dominant social status to extract sexual favors from their social inferiors or carrying on illicit relationships with freeborn boys.

Analogous relations were documented among other ancient peoples, such as the Thracians [16] and the Celts Posidonius. According to Plutarchthe ancient Persians had long practiced it as well, an opinion seconded by Sextus Empiricus who asserted Greek homosexuality wikipedia the laws of the Persians "recommended" the practice.

Plutarch, however, counters Herodotus by pointing out that the Greek homosexuality wikipedia had been castrating boys long before being exposed to the mores of the Greeks. Opposition to the carnal aspects of pederasty existed concurrently with the practice, both inside and outside of the cultures in which it was found.

Among the Greeks, a few cities prohibited it, and in others, such as Spartaonly the chaste form of pederasty was permitted, according to Xenophon [21] and others. Likewise, Plato's Greek homosexuality wikipedia devalue and then condemn sexual intercourse with the boys one loved, and he valued the self-disciplined lover who abstained from consummating the relationship. Judaism and Christianity also condemned sodomy while defining that term Greek homosexuality wikipediaa theme that would be promulgated by Islam and, later still, by the Baha'i Faith.

Commit not that which is forbidden you in Our Holy Tablet, and be not of those who rove distractedly in the wilderness of their desires. Within the blanket condemnation of sodomy, pederasty was a particular target. The 2nd-century preacher Clement of Alexandria used divine pederasty as an indictment of Greek religion and the mythological figures of HeraklesApolloPoseidonLaiusand Zeus: These are the gods your wives are to worship!

The law code of the Visigothic king Chindasuinth called for both partners to be " emasculated without delay, and be "Greek homosexuality wikipedia" up to the bishop of the diocese where the deed was committed to be placed in solitary confinement in a prison. At Romethe punishment was burning at the stake since the time of Theodosius I Nonetheless, the practice continued to surface, giving rise to proverbs such as With wine and boys around, the monks have no need of the Devil to tempt them, an early Christian saying from the Middle East.

Elsewhere, it was practiced in pre-Modern Japan until the Meiji restoration. In many societies, such as Ancient Greece, it was justified on the grounds that love was the best foundation for teaching courage as well as civic and cultural values and that homoerotic love between males was superior to other forms of love. Beside its use in the classical sense, the term has also been used as a Greek homosexuality wikipedia for anal sexirrespective of the nature of the partner.

A 19th-century sexological treatise discusses men practicing the "insertion of the penis into the anus of women," as "pederasty with their wives.

Homosexuality in ancient Rome often...

Jeremy Bentham used the term in this broader sense in an essay dating from the 18th century. The commonly accepted reference definitions of pederasty refer to a sexual relationship, or to copulation, between older and younger males. Francoeur regards it as "common but incorrect," [43] while Haeberle describes it as "a modern usage resulting from a misunderstanding of the original term and ignorance of its historical implications.

Academic and social studies sources propose more expansive definitions of the term. In Athens, the slaves were expressly forbidden from entering into pederastic relations Greek homosexuality wikipedia the free-born boys.

In medieval Islamic civilization, pederastic relations "were so readily accepted in upper-class circles that there was often little or no effort to conceal their existence. Plato was an early critic of sexual intercourse in pederastic relationships, proposing that men's love of boys avoid all carnal expression and instead progress from admiration of the lover's specific Greek homosexuality wikipedia to love of virtue itself in abstract form.

While copulation with boys was often criticized and seen as shameful and brutish, [47] Greek homosexuality wikipedia by whom? Pederastic art shows seduction scenes as well as sexual relations. In the seduction scenes the man is standing, grasping the boy's chin with one hand and reaching to fondle his genitals with the other.

In the sexual scenes, the Greek homosexuality wikipedia stand embracing face to face, the older of the two engaged in intercrural sex with the younger, who usually but not always does not show arousal. Anal sex is almost never shown, and then only as something eliciting surprise in the observers. The practice was ostensibly disparaged, the Athenians often naming it jocularly after their Dorian neighbors "cretanize," "laconize," "chalcidize".

While historians such as Dover and Halperin hold that only the man experienced pleasure, art and poetry indicate reciprocation of desire, and other historians assert that it is "a modern fairy tale that the younger eromenos was never aroused.

Pederastic couples were also said to be feared by tyrants, because the bond between the Greek homosexuality wikipedia was stronger than that of obedience to a tyrannical ruler.

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