Information on the association between bipolar disorder BDsexual satisfaction, sexual function, sexual distress and quality of life QoL is sparse. This study aims, in women with BD, to i investigate sexual dysfunction, sexual distress, general sexual satisfaction
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder QoL; ii explore whether sexual distress was related to affective symptoms and iii investigate whether QoL was associated with sexual distress.
The study is a questionnaire survey in an outpatient cohort of women with BD using: In total, 61 women age range 19—63, mean Women with BD were significantly more sexually distressed in comparison with Danish women from the background population but they did not have a higher prevalence of impaired sexual function.
Finally, the group of non-sexually distressed women with BD reported higher QoL scores compared with the sexually distressed group. Women with BD exhibited a high prevalence of "Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder" distress and their sexual function seemed associated with their actual mood symptoms and perception of QoL.
Sexual dysfunction is defined as an impaired sexual function that causes distress. The definition has changed several times over the course of time but a division into four categories overall has remained: Sexual dysfunction is caused by biological, psychological and social interactions and factors with negative influence on human well-being.
Additionally, the risk of sexual dysfunction is increased by factors such as socio-economic status Christensen et al. Information on the association between bipolar disorder, quality of life, sexual satisfaction, sexual function and distress is sparse.
It is well known that depression and antidepressants affect sexual function negatively Clayton et al.
Patients with BD had increased sexual desire in comparison with patients with unipolar disorder in the Italian study. Also, the presence of periods characterised by frequent sexual partners was significantly associated with the feeling that life is not worth living and sexual dysfunction was associated with lifetime suicide attempts. Finally, a Dutch study in the general population of the Netherlands showed an association between BD and sexual dissatisfaction Vanwesenbeeck et al.
Episodes of depression or mania can be trigged by stress. The possible relationship between sexual distress and affective symptoms in patients with BD has not been evaluated previously. Further, quality of life QoLthe general well-being and observed life satisfaction in many aspects—for example, physical and psychological health, education, employment, wealth, finance, environment, social relations and sexual function—are important aspects of QoL.
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To improve treatment and QoL clinically in patients with BD, it is thus important to also focus on and include sexual function. The aim of the present study was, in a cohort of women with BD, to i investigate sexual function, sexual distress, general sexual satisfaction and QoL; ii explore whether sexual distress was related to affective symptoms and iii investigate whether QoL was associated to sexual distress.
The included sample was derived from 1 March to 9 May from patients attending a region-wide secondary service for patients with primary bipolar disorders. The
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder received written and oral information about the project before deciding whether to participate. The self-assessment questionnaire included parameters, among others, previously shown to affect sexual function: The other part of the questionnaire included is described below. Can Bipolar Disorder Cause Sex...
The inclusion criteria were as follows: Participants were included in analyses independent of their answers, sexual preference, civil status, age and sexual activity. They were excluded from analysis when not diagnosed with BD according to their electronic hospital records. The control group consisted of a group of Danish women from a previous study conducted by our group Giraldi et al.
In summary, these data were collected from a cross-sectional study of a large, broadly sampled, non-clinical population cohort of Danish women women participated.
They were drawn randomly from the Danish Central National Register and invited to participate by letter. Besides, one global item scores overall quality of life overall QoL and one global item scores general health. The scores are then transformed linearly to a 0— scale except items one and two, overall QoL and general health which are displayed in raw scores 1—5 Noerholm et al.
Higher scores indicate better QoL. Each item is scored from 0 to 4 and depends on how the participants described their symptoms over the past week. Scores above five are indicative of mania or hypomania with the severity of symptoms increasing with higher scores Altman et al. The first three items cover the core symptoms of depression according to ICD depressed mood, lack of interest and lack of energy while the other items cover the accompanying symptoms lack of self-confidence, self-blame or
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder, thoughts of death or suicide, difficulty thinking and concentrating, agitation or inhibition, sleep disturbances and appetite and weight change.
Items 8 and 10 were divided into two sub-items and only the highest scores of these items were included in the analysis. The theoretical score was 50 with a range from 0 no depression to 50 major depression and a higher score indicating the severity of depression.
The internal and external validity were found to be psychometrically valid in two Danish studies Bech et al. CSFQ has been validated to assess sexual dysfunction among patients taking antipsychotics and also covers all stages of sexual functioning compared to other questionnaires de Boer et al. FSDS has been validated in studies, including a pilot study with 60 healthy women and 18 women with different kinds of sexual
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder. People with hypersexuality stemming from...
It was concluded that the questionnaire is able to distinguish between those with and without sexual dysfunction and the study showed moderate positive correlation to general mental distress, and thus seems to be a good estimate of sexual distress Derogatis et al. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
All analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version Chi square tests were used to compare variables within two groups and prevalence values between two groups.
The study population women patients with BDDanish women from the background population as well as the age-matched controls were, separately, dichotomised into two groups: An independent t test was used to compare mean scores and standard deviations. To investigate whether MDI scores or WHOQoL subscales were predictive
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder sexual distress, binary logistic regression analyses including age and depression score according to MDI and the five WHOQoL subscales general health, physical health, psychological health, social relationships and environmentwere conducted, respectively.
Finally, we compared information on sexual function among women with BD with data from women from the Danish background population and age-matched controls from this group, respectively. In total, 85 women were asked to participate; 14 did not answer the questionnaires response rate Almost all were prescribed medication, especially mood stabilisers mean number of medication: However, six patients were not distressed by this resulting in 15 Prevalence and comparison between women with bipolar disorder and women from the Danish background population including age-matched control persons.
Data from the background population is from a Danish study Giraldi et al. Sexual function was positively associated with QoL and social relationships. In further regression analyses, the WHOQoL subscales were added and none of these were associated with a significant higher level of sexual distress: The present study investigated sexual dysfunction, sexual distress, general sexual satisfaction and QoL in a cohort of women with BD and whether sexual distress was related to affective symptoms and QoL.
Overall, 61 women with BD were included; one-fourth had a sexual dysfunction an impaired sexual function combined with sexual distressmore than half of the study population was
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder distressed and one-third was unsatisfied with their sexual life.
The latter study did not include problems with sexual desire which might have underestimated the prevalence of sexual dysfunction since it is the most common sexually related problem Hayes et al. In comparison with the Danish background population included as comparison group in the present study, the women with BD did not have a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction but they reported sexual distress more often. Anyhow, it can be difficult to compare the prevalence of sexual dysfunction across studies due to different definitions of sexual dysfunction and varying time frames in questionnaires Hayes et al.
One might have expected a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women with BD; however, some of the women in the background population might have been diagnosed with BD as well. We did include age as a potential confounder in the regression analyses.
Sexual distress was negatively associated with sexual satisfaction and distress was associated with depressive symptom scale scores in line with other studies Hayes et al.
This is in line with a study reporting that
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder distress was reported among those who were better at communicating their sexual needs Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder Quality of life overall, general health and the four subscales was associated with higher MDI scores.
Not surprisingly, those with better sexual function also seemed more satisfied with their sexual life. In comparison with the Danish background population a study including womenthe present cohort had lower scores on the four WHOQoL subscales physical health: Sexual distress was related to a lower overall QoL score and for psychological health.
Dichotomising the study population into sexually distressed and not sexually distressed groups, no difference was found between their scores for social relationships but psychological health differed. This may be explained by the influence of psychopathology related to BD rather than social relationships that may have had influence on QoL in a negative
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder. Those who were sexually distressed reported higher MDI scores which included negative thoughts about oneself, reduced self-esteem, problems with memory and concentration.
It may partly contribute to the lower score on psychological health reported by the sexually distressed women with BD. The study population had a higher BMI compared to the age-matched controls. High BMI is associated with impaired sexual function and sexual inactivity Christensen et al. However, the obese participants were not prescribed more medicine than the rest of the cohort. Quetiapine seems to be associated with less sexually related side effects than other antipsychotics and lamotrigine seems not to be related to sexual dysfunction Serretti and Chiesa ab.
In the present study, four women did take lithium in combination with benzodiazepines and three of them had sexual dysfunction.
Hypersexuality and Bipolar Disorder: When...
Since they were taking more types of medication it may be assumed that these patients were difficult to treat and thereby also more clinically unstable with an impact on sexual function. Finally, it is well known that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRI and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors SNRI often have side effects, especially anorgasmia Bergh and Giraldi Menopause may be a risk factor for sexual dysfunction.
Information on the association between...
All the post-menopausal women with BD reported impaired sexual function. According to the latter study, non-heterosexual Danes reported more often that their sexual needs were not met, which might contribute to sexual distress.
It is of interest that more women with BD identify themselves as non-heterosexual in comparison to the general population and that they have sexual distress to a higher extent. However, these questions are beyond the limits of the present study and need larger
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder samples to answer them.
This study was limited by the cross-sectional design and a questionnaire survey does not fully explain the causations of sexual function, affective symptoms and quality of life. The study included women only and it is therefore recommended in future studies to include both sexes.
However, it is the first study including sexual distress in a definition of sexual dysfunction among women with BD. There was a high response rate The study
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder clinical data and the questionnaires were validated in order to estimate sexual function, sexual distress, affective symptoms and quality of life.
Unfortunately, time frames varied between the questionnaires, and as it was not possible to change this in the present validated form, it represents a limitation. It was a strength that age was included as a potential confounder due to the data being age- matched when comparing
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder prevalence of sexual dysfunction and distress among women with BD and Danish women from the background population.
If we had excluded the sexually inactive women, the prevalence of impaired sexual function would have been lower. It is further a limitation that the cross-sectional design of the present study did not allow us to explore whether they were inactive because of a present sexual dysfunction or whether they had a sexual dysfunction due to sexual inactivity at the time of answering the questionnaire—they might not have had problems with orgasm, desire or lubrication.
Due to the low number of participants it was not possible to correlate sexual function and the different kinds of medication. Further, sexual function seemed related to higher manic
Female hypersexuality in bipolar disorder positive correlation while sexual distress was negatively correlated with higher depressive scores.
QoL scores were negatively correlated with depression scores. Further, women reporting sexual distress had lower scores on the QoL subscale for psychological health, thus suggesting that the impact of BD influences overall QoL. I would have multiple rendezvous with men and women during quick trips to Las With hypersexuality, this isn't just increased sex drive.
My diagnosis of bipolar disorder along with meds and therapy would eventually bring. Does bipolar disorder affect your sex life? Your sexual activity may be increased (hypersexuality) and risky during a manic episode. This includes erectile dysfunction in men and high levels of sexual distress for women. Increased hypersexuality – Hypersexuality is a common symptom of hypomania/ mania in bipolar disorder and causes individuals to experience lowered.