Tujuan dari skripsi ini yaitu untuk mengetahui struktur kepribadian id, ego dan superego, macam-macam mekanisme pertahanan dan faktor pendorong tumbuhnya mekanisme pertahanan diri yang digunakan oleh David yang ada di dalam novel tersebut. Dalam proses analisis, penulis memanfaatkan metode kepustakaan dan pendekatan psikologi. Teori yang digunakan dalam analis adalah teori mekanisme pertahanan diri yang dikemukakan pertama kali oleh Freud, teori kepribadian id, ego, dan superego, dan teori stress dan trauma.
Dalam menganalisis struktur kepribadian: Dari segi superego, diketahui bahwa David memiliki aturan-aturan yang seharusnya dan tidak seharusnya dia lakukan, seperti Mekanisme pertahanan diri psychoanalysis and sexuality mematuhi orangtua, harus saling menyayangi, harus sabar, tidak boleh melawan apa yang diperintahkan orang tua, tidak boleh mencuri, dan tidak boleh berkelahi.
Peraturan-peraturan seperti inilah yang menjadi dasar yang digunakan oleh David dalam menjalani kehidupannya dan juga membuat ego-nya mengalami tekanan dalam memutuskan apa yang seharusnya dia lakukan. Selain itu, hasil analisis dari skripsi ini menunjukkan bahwa sang tokoh utama, David, menggunakan beberapa mekanisme pertahanan diri seperti penekanan, pengganti, pemindahan, reaksi formasi, kemunduran, dan rasionalisasi.
Penggunaan mekanisme pertahanan diri ini dipicu atau dipengaruh oleh kondisi psikologis tokoh utama, seperti stress dan trauma.
The writer chooses the book because the content of the memoir is very sad and pitiful yet it is intriguing and inspiring. The main character of this memoir is a weak, lone, and shy boy, yet he can survive 1 against hardness with his defense mechanism as his self-protection for years.
While pitying him, the writer also feels amazed of him. He faces many conflicts, Mekanisme pertahanan diri psychoanalysis and sexuality, and stressor in his life. Many people leave him and judge him as a bad boy without knowing what he faces and what he has been through.
There are so many theories in psychology, but the writer will use theory of defense mechanism, such as suppression, substitution, regression, reaction formation, displacement, and rationalization. By applying this defense mechanism theory, the writer will use it to explain what kinds of defenses that the main character uses in order to survive from his ordeal and what reason that makes him use it.
Substitution is one of defense mechanism where an unacceptable, unattainable, or frightening thought or thing is replaced by something that is more acceptable and available Strickland, Denial is method of defense by ignoring the reality in order to protect the self threatening impulses or events that can cause psychological and emotional problems Freud on Strickland, Reaction formation is method of defense by conducting the opposite action Freud on Feist, Regression is method of defense that works by returning to the previous or primitive development Freud in Feist, Rationalization is one of defense mechanisms that is used by a person by giving a plausible reason to excuse his or her action Freud Schultz, In David, the things that are included in the id are food, shelter, anger, and passion or aggression David s Ego David s ego appears in the story can be seen from the love, lie, and restrain in him David s Superego between the should and should not.
These should rule are: It is the things that David must follows in his life Should not The should not list that appears in David s superego can be understood from his experience in the house. It can be concluded that David is taught not to do something that his mother does not permit. Therefore, in David s life, there are so many should not be done list exist.
He looks disturbed when he is going home and facing his mother. His thought is only filled with hope to be kept away from his mother. David s tension is always rising when he thinks about his mother.
He cannot do whatever he wants because it is against Mrs. Because of the stress, David cannot think about the way out because his mind is possessed with negative thought about what will happen to him David s Traumatic Experiences from a Horrible Abuse Mekanisme pertahanan diri psychoanalysis and sexuality proof of trauma can be found in many narrations of the book.
This trauma can be seen from his reaction when his teacher, Mr. It shows how trauma reflection appears in David s action. David looks calm and quite. Hansen makes David looks into his eyes, David starts to feel scared. It is obvious that David does not want to look into the principal s eyes. From this sentence, David becomes remembering his past when his mother asked him to look into her eyes David s Defense Mechanisms in A Child Called It David uses his own power for protection.
Methods of defense he uses and appear in this analysis are suppression, regression, substitution, reaction formation, displacement, and rationalization David s Suppression David s Suppression of Hunger In the story, hunger is an uncomfortable condition David feels everyday. His life is not surrounded by food, only slavery. For him, Mekanisme pertahanan diri psychoanalysis and sexuality is one of the things that David wants.
It is must and cannot be skipped. However, food is such a hard, scarce, and expensive material for him.
Meanwhile, it is what he really needs. If it is not fulfilled, he will be sick and die. Therefore, to help his hunger, he Mekanisme pertahanan diri psychoanalysis and sexuality get the food. The 4 only method how he can resolve his hunger is with suppression. I act timid, nodding to her threats. Please, I say to myself, just let me eat.
Hit me again, but I have to have food. Another blow pushed my head against the tile counter top. I let the tears of mock defeat stream down my face as she storms out of the kitchen, seemingly satisfied with herself.
After I count her steps, making sure she s gone, I breathe a sigh of relief. Mother can beat me all she wants, but I haven t let her take away my will to somehow survive Pelzer, Finally, he gets the food because he has finished the chores and gotten permission, For my reward I receive breakfast leftovers from one of my brothers cereal bowls David s Suppression of Anger David Mekanisme pertahanan diri psychoanalysis and sexuality been through a miserable life, an abuse from the parent and a bullying from friends.
Therefore, it is normal if he saves a lot of anger inside him. David looks holding out his anger. His school friends that he is ignored always disrupt his day by mocking and bullying him. David ignores them because of his superego reminds him. It is should not be done. He must avoid the fighting. Because of the influence of this superego, David s ego is also trying to follow up his morality value. Therefore, the safest way is by holding or suppressing the anger by not returning their mocking.
He only stare or shows his angry eyes toward his friend who is seen by one of the gang. This way is working because he can get Mekanisme pertahanan diri psychoanalysis and sexuality peace and he also avoids the punishment if he is truly listen to his instinct to fight back David s Suppression of Pain For David, emotion such as love, hatred, and disappointment is forbidden to express.
It must be kept and locked. It is what he must do if he wants to feel safe in the house. He must not show his feeling in his eyes especially in front of his mother. Therefore, when he feels something, he holds his emotions by acting as if he feels nothing.
The suppression is shown by his statement, I wanted to scream, but I refused to give Mother the pleasure of hearing me cry. This suppression and restrain can bee seen in Mekanisme pertahanan diri psychoanalysis and sexuality title of the book, A Child Called It.