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Sexual reproduction in plant

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Plant reproductive systemany of the systems, sexual or asexual, by which plants reproduce. In plantsas in animalsthe end result of reproduction is the continuation of a given speciesand the ability to reproduce is, therefore, rather conservativeor given to only moderate change, during evolution.

Changes have occurred, however, and the pattern is demonstrable through a survey of plant groups. Reproduction in plants is either asexual or sexual.

Sexual reproduction in plant reproduction in plants involves a variety of widely disparate methods for producing new plants identical in every respect to the parent. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, depends on a complex series of basic cellular events, involving chromosomes and their genesthat take place within an elaborate sexual apparatus evolved precisely for the development of new plants in some respects different from the two parents that played a role in their production.

Sexual reproduction involves two fundamental...

For an account of the common details of asexual and sexual reproduction and the evolutionary significance of the two methods, see reproduction. In order to describe the modification of reproductive systems, plant groups must be identified. One convenient classification of organisms sets plants apart from other forms such as bacteriaalgaefungiand protozoans. Under such an arrangement, the plants, as separated, comprise two great divisions or phyla —the Bryophyta mosses and liverworts and the Tracheophyta vascular plants.

The Sexual reproduction in plant plants include four subdivisions: A comparative treatment of the two patterns of reproductive systems will introduce the terms required for an understanding of the survey of those systems as they appear in selected plant groups. The broad range of variation in the morphology and structure of nonreproductive vegetative organs within the angiosperms has been outlined above.

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