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Sexual orientation beliefs scale

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Log In Sign Up. A community sample of lesbian and bisexual identified women were recruited for a cross sectional online survey. Overall, similar patterns of direct and indirect effects were observed in lesbian Sexual orientation beliefs scale bisexual women. In both groups, naturalness beliefs were associated with lower internalized-stigma, whilst discreteness beliefs were associated with greater internalized stigma.

In bisexual women, non-prototypical sexual attraction patterns moderated the relationship between discreteness beliefs and sexual orientation uncertainty. Younger age was associated with increased sexual orientation uncertainty in both lesbian and bisexual women. The present study identifies potential implications of common lay theories of sexual orientation for lesbian vs.

The present study suggests that the beliefs lesbian and bisexual women hold about the nature and origins of sexual orientation may be Sexual orientation beliefs scale to their own self- acceptance and certainty in their sexual orientation.

The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale...

Sexual Orientation Beliefs and Their Correlates in Lesbian and Bisexual Women There is intense scientific and popular debate regarding the nature and origin of Sexual orientation beliefs scale orientation. The second concerns whether sexual orientation exists in discrete categories e.

Existing literature documents a diversity of "Sexual orientation beliefs scale" about sexual orientation in LGBs, particularly among same-sex attracted SSA women. While previous explorations of sexual orientation beliefs among SSA individuals have been largely descriptive, we contend that these beliefs may be relevant to a range of sexual identity outcomes. Moreover, we aimed to examine whether these beliefs were linked to distinct sexual identity outcomes in lesbian vs.

Sexual orientation beliefs scale first, henceforth referred to as naturalness, refers to the extent to which sexual orientation is perceived as biologically determined, immutable, and fixed early in life. The second, referred to as discreteness, reflects the extent to which sexual orientation is thought to be fluid, or existing on a continuum vs.

Among heterosexuals, these beliefs are found to have mixed implications for attitudes toward homosexuality. A small number of existing studies have examined lay beliefs about sexual orientation in lesbian and bisexual women. In another qualitative study among lesbian identified women Gottschalk, In her longitudinal study of female sexual orientation, Diamond posited that stable lesbians women who had maintained a consistent lesbian identity from late adolescence onward would perceive their sexuality as less influenced by the environment or personal choice, and more inborn than fluid lesbians lesbian identified women whose sexual identity had shifted over their adult life and stable non-lesbians women who never adopted lesbian labels.

orientation with either a single...

Although these findings indicate substantial within group variability in etiological beliefs and evidence that bisexual women are more likely to perceive choice in their orientation than lesbian women, they are limited by reliance on single item measures, which fail to capture the full range of essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation.

These studies also fail to examine possible implications of these beliefs for sexual identity related outcomes among LGB individuals.

When directed toward the self, these negative attitudes and beliefs are thought to cause LGB individuals guilt, shame, and contribute to impaired self-worth Williamson, However, more recent conceptualizations, suggest that individuals may be uncertain about Sexual orientation beliefs scale sexuality long after first assuming a sexual minority identity, and that individuals may be uncertain for a number distinct reasons Diamond, b.

At present there is some debate as to whether sexual orientation uncertainty necessarily reflects Sexual orientation beliefs scale problems. As such, there is need to examine under what conditions sexual orientation uncertainty may be relevant to psychological wellbeing. As such, lesbian identified women who possess exclusive same-sex attraction, and bisexual identified women with equal same and other-sex attractions, would be deemed to possess prototypical attractions with reference to their respective sexual identities and socially recognized categories of sexual orientation.

On the other hand, lesbian identified women who report non-exclusive same-sex attraction, and bisexual identified women with straight or lesbian leaning bisexual attractions, are conceptualized as possessing varying degrees of non-prototypicality in their attractions. We contend that lesbian and bisexual women possessing non-prototypical attractions may be more likely to experience uncertainty in making sense of their sexual orientation, given that their attractions do not neatly conform to socially recognized categories of sexual orientation and identity.

Sexual orientation beliefs scale instance, a lesbian identified woman possessing non-exclusive same-sex attraction would be more likely to question the nature of her sexual orientation i. Sexual Orientation Beliefs and Sexual Identity Outcomes As sexual orientation beliefs appear to inform attitudes toward homosexuality in heterosexuals, such beliefs may be related to how LGB individuals evaluate their own sexual orientation. Morandini, Blaszczynski, Ross, et al.

As such, it may be predicted that LGB individuals who perceive their sexual orientation as inborn and immutable, are more accepting of their sexual minority orientations. To this point however, empirical findings on this question are inconclusive. No link was observed for bisexual participants. The authors suggested that perceiving sexual orientation as chosen might hold different meaning among LGBs vs.

However, Morandini, Blaszczynski, Ross, et al. In addition to impacting self-evaluations, gay men perceiving sexual orientation as discrete were also less uncertain about their sexual orientation Morandini et al.

One limitation of the Sexual orientation beliefs scale study was that the authors did not control for the possibility that men who self-identify as gay, vary in the exclusivity of their Sexual orientation beliefs scale attraction. Consistent with this possibility, Katz-Wise and Hyde found that participants who viewed sexual orientation as more malleable and less fixed were more likely to have reported shifts in their own sexual attraction or sexual identity in the past.

As such, controlling for within group variability in sexual attraction will help to isolate the unique contributions of naturalness and discreteness beliefs to sexual identity outcomes. This appears especially important in the context of the present study, given that most same-sex attracted women report attractions to both genders, although to varying degrees Diamond, b. In addition, we aimed to assess whether non-prototypical attractions in lesbian and bisexual women i.

WSQ: Women's Studies Quarterly

We conceptualized psychological wellbeing as involving both affective and cognitive components of wellbeing Ryff,previously found to be associated with sexual identity variables and minority stress in LGB populations Meyer, ; Morandini, Blaszczynski, Sexual orientation beliefs scale, et al. These were self-esteem, depression and life- satisfaction. As depicted in Figure 1, we hypothesized: That is, non-prototypicality will moderate the association between discreteness beliefs "Sexual orientation beliefs scale" sexual orientation uncertainty in lesbian and bisexual women see Path I1.

Internalized stigma will be negatively associated with age in both lesbian and bisexual women Path D1. Given that most LGB individuals first become aware of their same-sex or same and other-sex attraction in adolescence and early adulthood, internalized stigma would be predicted to be highest during these periods, and diminish with age Herek et al.

Whilst acknowledging that some individuals experience shifts in facets of their sexual orientation across the life course Diamond,awe hypothesize that, on average, sexual orientation uncertainty will be negatively associated with age in both lesbian and bisexual women.

Lesbian and bisexual women possessing non-prototypical attractions will perceive sexual orientation as less immutable or discrete than those possessing prototypical attractions, given that their own sexual attractions do not fit with categorical understandings of sexual orientation see Path H2 and H4. Internalized stigma and sexual orientation uncertainty will be positively associated in both lesbian and bisexual women Path G in line with previous empirical findings Feinstein et al.

The relationship between sexual orientation uncertainty and psychological wellbeing will be moderated by discreteness beliefs and age in both lesbian and bisexual women Path I2 and I3. As such, the negative association between uncertainty and psychological wellbeing will be stronger for those who endorse discreteness beliefs.

Although we did not have specific hypotheses for paths H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, and H6, these paths were estimated to control for relationships between exogenous variables in the model. To be eligible, participants were required to be 18 years or over and report a sexual minority identity or otherwise experience same-sex attraction. The demographics of the present sample were commensurate with other large-scale online samples of LGB Australians e.

Respondents were recruited via targeted and snowball sampling. Respondents were not offered incentives for participation. The survey was active between March and September We administered scales in a set order: Among lesbian women the range of scores was 4 - 7, whereas bisexuals spanned the full continuum.

Non-prototypical attractions were coded to reflect the extent of non- exclusivity in same-sex attraction in lesbian women i. Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale Arseneau et al. The first labeled naturalness comprised 12 items Sexual orientation beliefs scale the degree to which individuals perceive sexual orientation as biologically determined, immutable and fixed across the lifespan e.

Respondents rated their endorsement of these beliefs Sexual orientation beliefs scale a 5-point Likert scale, 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree with higher scores indicating stronger endorsement of the relevant construct. In a previous study among gay men Morandini, Blaszczynski, Ross, et al. This subscale comprises five items assessing the extent to which individuals hold negative feelings about their same-sex sexuality. To ensure items were applicable to both lesbian and bisexual identified women, we provided both lesbian and bisexual identity labels in all relevant items, and specified that respondents answer questions based on their respective sexual identity.

Responses were registered on a 7-point Likert scale, 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree. The depression subscale contains 7 items assessing depressed or dysphoric mood with items corresponding to the diagnostic criteria for depression e.

A 4- point Likert scale, 1 strongly agree to 4 strongly disagree was used to register responses. Studies find that the RSE is predictably associated with other indices of psychological functioning Ryff, The scale comprises five items e.

A complete overview of the analytic plan can be found in the online supplemental materials. Briefly, given the nature of our data, the most appropriate estimation method was weighted least square mean and variance adjusted Sexual orientation beliefs scale. Latent variables were estimated using all scale items as indicators however two latent variables, discreteness and sexual orientation uncertainty, were subsequently analysed as observed variables in order to create interaction effects for tests of moderation.

The Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale...

The three latent variables, Sexual orientation beliefs scale, self-esteem, and life satisfaction, were conceptualized as comprising a higher-order latent variable, psychological wellbeing. To allow for meaningful comparisons of structural parameters between lesbian and bisexual women, we tested configural invariance i. This process is important in ensuring that observed differences on constructs of interest do not represent measurement artefacts Steenkamp,and enables Sexual orientation beliefs scale of structural invariance akin to testing moderation between groups on all structural paths in the model.

Those respondents failing to attempt at least one entire measure of interest due to drop out, were excluded from analysis as imputation may be biased by a large proportion of missing data Allison, The final sample consisted of lesbian women and bisexual women. Descriptive statistics and zero-order correlations for observed variables included in the hypothesized structural model for lesbian and bisexual women can be found in Table 2.

For sake of comparison, we have also included a multigroup configural model for the original measurement model i. In the next step, metric invariance was examined by comparing the configural baseline measurement model i. The nested model i. Finally, scalar invariance was examined by comparing the metric model i.

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