This site uses cookies. By continuing, your consent is assumed. Learn more

139.3fm shares

One thousand and one nights pdf free download

opinion

One Thousand and One Nights Arabic: It is often known in English as the Arabian Nightsfrom the first English-language edition c. The work was collected over many centuries by various authors, translators, and scholars across West, Central, and South Asia and North Africa.

The Complete Nights. Identifier Nights_...

Some tales themselves trace their roots back to ancient and medieval ArabicPersianGreekIndianJewish and Turkish [3] folklore and literature. A Thousand Taleswhich in turn relied partly on Indian elements. The stories proceed from this original tale; some are framed within other tales, while others begin and end of their own accord.

Some editions contain only a few hundred nights, while others include 1, or more. The bulk of the text is in prose, although verse is occasionally used for songs and riddles and to express heightened emotion.

Most of the poems are single couplets or quatrainsalthough some are longer. In his bitterness and grief, he decides that all women are the same. Eventually the vizierwhose duty it is to provide them, cannot find any more virgins. On the night of their marriage, Scheherazade begins to tell the king a tale, but does not end it. The king, curious about how the story ends, is thus forced to postpone her execution in order to hear the conclusion.

The next night, as soon as she finishes the tale, she begins another one, and the king, eager to One thousand and one nights pdf free download the conclusion of that tale as well, postpones her execution once again. This goes on for one thousand and one nights, hence the name.

The tales vary widely: Numerous stories depict jinnsghoulsapes[9] sorcerers, magicians, and legendary places, which are often intermingled with real people and geography, not always rationally. Common protagonists include the historical Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashidhis Grand VizierJafar al-Barmakiand the famous poet Abu Nuwasdespite the fact that these figures lived some years after the fall of the Sassanid Empirein which the frame tale of Scheherazade is set.

Sometimes a character in Scheherazade's tale will begin telling other characters a story of his own, and that story may have another one told within it, resulting in a richly layered narrative texture. The different versions have different individually detailed endings in some Scheherazade asks for a pardon, in some the king sees their children and decides not to execute his wife, in some other things happen that make the king distracted but they all end with the king giving his wife a pardon and sparing her life.

The narrator's standards for what constitutes a cliffhanger seem broader than in modern literature. While in many cases a story is cut off with the hero in danger of losing his life or another kind of deep trouble, in some parts of the full text Scheherazade stops her narration in the middle of an exposition of abstract philosophical principles or complex points of Islamic philosophyand in one case during a detailed description of human anatomy according to Galen —and in all these cases turns out to be justified in her belief that the king's curiosity about the sequel would "One thousand and one nights pdf free download" her another day of life.

The history of the Nights is extremely complex and modern scholars have made many attempts to untangle the story of how the collection as it currently exists came about. Robert Irwin summarises their findings:.

In the s and s a lot of work was done on the Nights by Zotenberg and others, in the course of which a consensus view of the history of the text emerged.

Most scholars agreed that the Nights was a One thousand and one nights pdf free download work and that the earliest tales in it came from India and Persia.

At some time, probably in the early 8th century, these tales were translated into Arabic under the title Alf Laylaor 'The Thousand Nights'. This collection then formed the basis of The Thousand and One Nights.

The original core of stories was quite small. Then, in Iraq in the 9th or 10th century, this original core had Arab stories added to it—among them some tales about the Caliph Harun al-Rashid.

Now you can buy the...

Also, perhaps from the 10th century onwards, previously independent sagas and story cycles were added to the compilation [ In the early modern period yet more stories were added to the Egyptian collections so as to swell the bulk of the text sufficiently to bring its length up to the full 1, nights of storytelling promised by the book's title. Devices found in Sanskrit literature such as frame stories and animal fables are seen by some scholars as lying at the root of the conception One thousand and one nights pdf free download the Nights.

The influence of the Panchatantra and Baital Pachisi is particularly notable. It is possible that the influence of the Panchatantra is via a Sanskrit adaptation called the Tantropakhyana. Only fragments of the original Sanskrit form of this work exist, but translations or adaptations exist in Tamil, [14] Lao, [15] Thai [16] and Old Javanese.

In the 10th century Ibn al-Nadim compiled a catalogue of books the "Fihrist" in Baghdad. He noted that the Sassanid kings of Iran enjoyed "evening tales and fables". He also writes disparagingly of the collection's literary quality, observing that "it is truly a coarse book, without warmth in the telling".

In the s, the Iraqi scholar Safa Khulusi suggested on internal rather than historical evidence that the Persian writer Ibn al-Muqaffa' may have been responsible for the first Arabic translation of the frame story and some of the Persian stories later incorporated into the Nights. This would place genesis of the collection in the 8th century.

In the midth century, the scholar Nabia Abbott found a document with a few lines of an Arabic work with the title The Book of the Tale of a Thousand Nightsdating from the 9th century. This is the earliest known surviving fragment of the Nights. Some of the earlier Persian tales may have survived within the Arabic tradition altered such that Arabic Muslim names and new locations were substituted for pre-Islamic Persian ones, but it is also clear that whole cycles of Arabic tales were eventually added to the collection and apparently replaced most of the Persian materials.

One such cycle of Arabic tales centres around a small group of historical figures from 9th-century Baghdad, including the caliph Harun al-Rashid diedhis vizier Jafar al-Barmaki d. Another cluster is a body of stories from late medieval Cairo in which are mentioned persons and places that date to as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Two main Arabic manuscript traditions of the Nights are known: The Syrian tradition includes the oldest manuscripts; these versions are also much shorter and include fewer tales.

It is represented in print by the so-called Calcutta I — and most notably by the Leiden editionwhich is based above all on the Galland manuscript. It is believed to be the purest expression of the style of the mediaeval Arabian Nights. Texts of the Egyptian tradition emerge later and contain many more tales of much more varied content; a much larger number of originally independent tales have been incorporated into the collection over the centuries, most of them after the Galland manuscript was written, [37] and were being included as late as in the 18th and 19th centuries, perhaps in order to attain the eponymous number of nights.

The final product of this tradition, the so-called Zotenberg Egyptian Recensiondoes contain nights and is reflected in print, with slight variations, by the editions known as the Bulaq and the Macnaghten or Calcutta II — All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales: The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core. It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more "authentic" and closer to the original: The first European version — was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources.

He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppoa Maronite scholar whom "One thousand and one nights pdf free download" called "Hanna Diab.

As scholars were looking for the presumed "complete" and "original" form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the "standard version". The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane, were bowdlerized. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a One thousand and one nights pdf free downloadwhich were printed between and It has, however, been criticized for its "archaic language and extravagant idiom" and "obsessive focus on sexuality" and has even been called an "eccentric ego-trip " and a "highly personal reworking of the text".